A funny kind of English man

1.Read.

 My name is Karim Amir, and I am an Englishman born and bred, almost. I am often considered to be a funny kind of Englishman, a new breed as it  were, having emerged from two old histories. But I don’t care –Englishhman I am (though not proud of it), from the South London suburbs and going somewhere. Perhaps it is the odd mixture of continents and blood, of here and there, of belonging and not, that makes me restless and easily bored. Or perhaps t was being brought up in the suburbs that di dit. Anyway, why search the inner room when it’s enough to say that I was looking for trouble, any kind of movement, action and sexual interest I could find because things were so gloomy, so slow and heavy, in our family, I don’t know why. Quite frankly, it was all getting me down and I was ready for anything.

Then one day everything changed… I was seventeen…

On this day my father hurried home from work not in a gloomy mood. His mood is high, for him. I could smell the train on him as he put his briefcase away behind the front door and took off his raincoat… He grabbed my fleeing little brother, Allie, and kissed him ; he kissed my mother and me with enthusiam, as if he ‘d recently been rescued from an earthquake. More normally, he handed Mum his supper : a packet of kebabs and chapatis so greasy their paper wrapper had disintegrated. Next, instead of flopping into a chair to watch the television news and wait for Mum to put the warmed-up food on the table, he went into their bedroom, which was downstairs next to the living room. He quickly stripped to his vest and underpants.

« Fetch the pink towel, » he said to me.

I did so. Dad spread it on the bedroom floor  and fell on to his knees. I wondered if he’d suddenly taken up religion. But no,  he placed his arms beside his head and kicked himself into the air.

« I must practise, » he said in a stifled voice.

Practise for what ? I said reasonably, watching him with interest and suspicion.

« They’ve called me for the damn yoga Olympics, »he said. He easily became sarcastic, Dad.

He was standing on his head now, balanced perfectly… Like many indians he was small, but Dad was also elegant and handsome, with delicate hands and manners ; beside him most Englishmen looked like clumsy giraffes. He was broad and strong too : when young he’d been a boxer and fanatical chest-expander. He was as proud of his chest as our next-door neighbours were of their kitchen range…

Soon, my mother, who was in the kitchen as usual, came into the room and saw Dad practising for the yoga Olympics. He hadn’t done this for months, so she knew something was up… Mum was a plump and unphysical woman with a pale round face and kind brown eyes. I imagined that she considered her body to be an inconvenient object surrounding her, as if she were stranded on an unexplored desert island. Mostly she was a timid and compliant person, but when exasperated she could get nervily aggressive, like now.

« Allie, go to bed » she said sharply to my brother… He was wearing a net to stop his hair going crazy when he slept. She said to Dad, « Oh God, Haroon, all the front of you sticking out like that and everyone can see ! She turned to me. ‘You encourage him to be like this. At least pull the curtains !

It’s not necessary, Mum. There isn’t another house that can see us for a hundred yards – unless they’re watching through binoculars. »

That’s exactly what they are doing, she said.

I pulled the curtains on the back garden. The room immediately seemed to contract. Tension rose. I couldn’t wait to get out of the house now. I always wanted to be somewhere else, I don’t know why.

When Dad spoke his voice came out squashed and thin.

« Karim, read to me in a very clear voice from the yoga book. »

I ran and fetched Dad’s preferred yoga book – Yoga for Women, with pictures of healthy women- from among his other books on Budhism, Sufism, Confucianism and Zen…

He grunted his approval at each sentence and opened hs eyes, seeking out my mother, who had closed hers…

« I feel better. I can feel myself coming old, you see. » He softened. « By the way, Margaret, coming to Mrs Kay’s tonight ? She shook her head. « Come on, sweetie. Let’s go out together and enjoy ourselves, eh ?

« But it isn’t me that Eva wants to see, » » Mum said. « She ignores me… I’m not Indian enough for her. I’m only English. »

« I know you’re only English, but you could wear a sari. » He laughed.

« Special occasion, too, » said Dad, « tonight »

« What is it Dad ? »

« You know, they’ve so kindly asked me to speak on one or two aspects of Oriental philosophy. »

Dad spoke quickly and then tried to hide his pride in this honour, this proof of his importance… This was my opportunity.

I’ll come with you to Eva’s if you want me to.

« Ok, Dad said to me, »you get changed, Karim. He turned to Mum. He wanted her to be with him, to witness him being respected by others. ‘If only you’d come, Margaret. »

« Say goodbye to your mom, »he said…

Dad and I got out of the house.

It wasn’t far, about four miles to the Kays’, but Dad would never have got there without me. I knew all the streets and every bus route.

Dad had been in Britain since 1950 –over ttenty years –and for fifteen of those years he’d lived in the South London suburbs. Yet still he stumbled around the place like an Indian just off the boat, and asked questions like,  « Is Dover in Kent ? I’d have thought, as an employee of the British Government… a one as him, he’d just have to know these things. I sweated with embarrassment when he halted strangers in the street to ask directions to places that were a hundred yards away in an area where he’d lived for almost two decades.

 The Budha of Suburbia from Hanif KUREISHI (Part 1 : In the suburbs)

 Comprehension

Group A

2.Make a portrait of Karim (age, origin/race, place of birth, origin of parents, brothers and sisters)

3.What is the main event taking place all through this passage ?

4.What are the main aspects of the life of an Indian in London (tolerance, prejudices, exoticism, attachment, rejection to traditions.

Group B

 5.Compare karim’s portrait of his father and mother. Which portrait is more positive ? What can you say about it ?6.To what extent can you link the sentence « I always wanted to be somewhere else, I don’t know why » to the notion of identity ?

William Golding’s biography

William Golding


Instructions

Write your own biography of William Golding stressing on the main aspects of his career as a novelist.


William Golding was born September 19, 1911, in Saint Columb Minor, Cornwall, England. In 1935 he started teaching English and philosophy in Salisbury. He temporarily left teaching in 1940 to join the Royal Navy. In 1954 he published his first novel, Lord of the Flies. In 1983, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. On June 19, 1993, he died in Perranarworthal, Cornwall, England.

Early Life

William Golding was born on September 19, 1911, in Saint Columb Minor, Cornwall, England. He was raised in a 14th-century house next door to a graveyard. His mother, Mildred, was an active suffragette who fought for women’s right to vote. His father, Alex, worked as a schoolmaster. William received his early education at the school his father ran, Marlborough Grammar School. When William was just 12 years old, he attempted, unsuccessfully, to write a novel. A frustrated child, he found an outlet in bullying his peers. Later in life, William would describe his childhood self as a brat, even going so far as to say, “I enjoyed hurting people.” After primary school, William went on to attend Brasenose College at Oxford University. His father hoped he would become a scientist, but William opted to study English literature instead. In 1934, a year before he graduated, William published his first work entitled Poems.

Teaching

After college, Golding worked in settlement houses and the theater for a time. Eventually, he decided to follow in his father’s footsteps and in 1935 Golding took a position teaching English and philosophy at Bishop Wordsworth’s School in Salisbury. Golding’s experience teaching unruly young boys would later serve as inspiration for his novel Lord of the Flies. In 1940 Golding temporarily abandoned the profession to join the Royal Navy and fight in World War II.

Royal Navy

Golding spent six years on a boat, except for a seven-month stint in New York. While in the Royal Navy, Golding developed a lifelong romance with sailing and the sea. During World War II, he fought battleships. Of his World War II experiences, Golding has said, “I began to see what people were capable of doing. Anyone who moved through those years without understanding that man produces evil as a bee produces honey, must have been blind or wrong in the head.” Like his teaching experience, Golding’s participation in the war would prove to be fruitful material for his fiction.In 1945, after World War II had ended, Golding went back to teaching and writing.

Lord of the Flies

In 1954, after 21 rejections, Golding published his first and most acclaimed novel, Lord of the Flies. The novel told the gripping story of a group of adolescent boys stranded on a deserted island after a plane wreck. Lord of the Flies explored the savage side of human nature as the boys, let loose from the constraints of society, brutally turned against one another in the face of an imagined enemy. Riddled with symbolism, the book set the tone for Golding’s future work, in which he continued to examine man’s internal struggle between good and evil. Since its publication, the novel has been widely regarded as a classic. In 1963 Peter Brook made a film adaptation of the critically acclaimed novel. Two decades later, at the age of 73, Golding was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1988 he was knighted by England’s Queen Elizabeth II. In 1990 a new film version of the Lord of the Flies was released, bringing the book to the attention of a new generation of readers.

Death and Legacy

Golding spent the last few years of his life quietly living with his wife, Ann Brookfield, at their house near Falmouth, Cornwall, where he continued writing. On June 19, 1993, Golding died of a heart attack in Perranarworthal, Cornwall. Among the most successful novels of Golding’s writing career were Rites of Passage (winner of the 1980 Booker McConnell Prize), Pincher Martin, Free Fall and The Pyramid.

 

Extract from « The world of the flies » by W.Golding

THE END OF INNOCENCE

lord of the flies


Understanding the facts

1. Say what this passage depicts; explain what has happened and what the boys have been doing.

2. Focus on the children: how do they appear to the officer?

3. Focus on the officer’s questions and on his reactions to Ralph’s answers: what are his feelings?

4. What do the children do in the last paragraph? Why, in your opinion?

Interpreting

5. Compare the officer and the children: what would you say the officer stands for?

6. “I should have thought that a pack of British boys—you’re all British aren’t you?—would have been able to put up a better show than that—I mean—” (lines 48-52): what does the officer mean?

7. Focus on the narrator’s comments on what the children have gone through. What is the nature of these comments?

Reacting

8. How can this passage be seen as an illustration of what a Voyage and Return story is intended to do? What is there to learn in that type of story?


He staggered to his feet, tensed for more terrors, and looked up at a huge peaked cap.It was a white-topped cap, and above the green shade of the peak was a crown, an anchor, gold foliage. He saw white drill, epaulettes, a revolver, a row of gilt buttons down the front of a uniform. […]

The officer looked at Ralph doubtfully for a moment, then took his hand away from the butt of the revolver.

“Hullo.”

Squirming a little, conscious of his fi lthy appearance, Ralph answered shyly.

“Hullo.”

The officer nodded as if a question had been answered.

“Are there any adults—any grown-ups with you?”

Dumbly, Ralph shook his head. He turned a half-pace on the sand. A semi-circle of little boys, their bodies streaked with colored clay, sharp sticks in their hands, were standing on the beach making no noise at all.

“Fun and games,” said the officer.

The fire reached the coconut palms by the beach and swallowed them noisily. A flame,seemingly detached, swung like an acrobat and licked up the palm heads on the platform.

The sky was black.

The officer grinned cheerfully at Ralph.

“We saw your smoke. What have you been doing? Having a war or something?”

Ralph nodded.

The offi cer inspected the little scarecrow in front of him. The kid needed a bath, a haircut, a nose-wipe and a good deal of ointment.

“Nobody killed, I hope? Any dead bodies?”

“Only two. And they’ve gone.”

The offi cer leaned down and looked closely at Ralph.

“Two? Killed?”

Ralph nodded again. Behind him, the whole island was shuddering with fl ame. The officer knew, as a rule, when people were telling the truth. He whistled softly.

Other boys were appearing now, tiny tots some of them, brown with the distended bellies of small savages. One of them came close to the officer and looked up.

“I’m, I’m—”

But there was no more to come. Percival Wemys Madison sought in his head for an incantation that had faded clean away.

The officer turned back to Ralph.

“We’ll take you off . How many of you are there?”

Ralph shook his head. The offi cer looked past him to the group of painted boys.

“Who’s boss here?”

“I am,” said Ralph loudly.

A little boy who wore the remains of an extraordinary black cap on his red hair and who carried the remains of a pair of spectacles at his waist, started forward, then changed his mind and stood still.

“We saw your smoke. And you don’t know how many of you there are?”

“No, sir.”

“I should have thought,” said the officer as he visualized the search before him, “I should have thought that a pack of British boys—you’re all British aren’t you?—would have been able to put up a better show than that—I mean—”

“It was like that at first,” said Ralph,”before things—”

He stopped.

“We were together then—” The officer nodded helpfully.

“I know. Jolly good show. Like the Coral Island.”

Ralph looked at him dumbly. For a moment he had a fl eeting picture of the strange glamour that had once invested the beaches. But the island was scorched up like dead wood—Simon was dead— and Jack had… The tears began to fl ow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. And in the middle of them, with filthy body, matted hair, and unwiped nose, Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the air of the true, wise friend called Piggy.

William Golding, Lord of the Flies (1954)


 

Here are two extracts of two versions of the ending scene of » Lord of the flies ». Compare the two versions.

 LORD OF THE FLIES 1963

  LORD OF THE FLIES 1990

Extract 2 from Robinson Crusoe by D.Defoe

CHAPTER XIV – A DREAM REALISED

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 Is Robinson the same man he was in the first extract? To what extent has he evolved ?

How would you qualify his relation with Friday ? Justify your answer.


His face was round and plump;his nose small, not flat, like the negroes; a very good mouth,thin lips, and his fine teeth well set, and as white as ivory. After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half-an hour, he awoke again, and came out of the cave to me: for I had been milking my goats which I had in the enclosure just by: when he espied me he came running to me, laying himself down again upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an humble, thankful disposition, making a great many antic gestures to show it. At last he lays his head flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done before; and after this made all the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and submission imaginable, to let me know how he would serve me so long as he lived. I understood him in many things, and let him know I was very well pleased with him. In a little time I began to speak to him; and teach him to speak to me: and first, I let him know his name should be Friday, which was the day I saved his life: I called him so for the memory of the time. I likewise taught him to say Master; and then let him know that was to be my name: I likewise taught him to say Yes and No and to know the meaning of them. I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread in it; and gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly complied with, and made signs that it was very good for him. I kept there with him all that night; but as soon as it was day I beckoned to him to come with me, and let him know I would give him some clothes; at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark naked. As we went by the place where he had buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the marks that he had made to find them again, making signs to me that we should dig them up again and eat them. At this I appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand to him to come away, which he did immediately, with great submission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies were gone; and pulling out my glass I looked, and saw plainly the place where they had been, but no appearance of them or their canoes; so that it was plain they were gone…

When he had done this, we came back to our castle; and there I fell to work for my man Friday; and first of all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the poor gunner’s chest I mentioned, which I found in the wreck, and which, with a little alteration, fitted him very well… gave him a cap which I made of hare’s skin, very convenient, and fashionable enough; and thus he was clothed, for the present, tolerably well, and was mighty well pleased to see himself almost as well clothed as his master. It is true he went awkwardly in these clothes at first: wearing the drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms; but a little easing them where he complained they hurt him, and using himself to them, he took to them at length very well.

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I began to consider where I should lodge him…

Daniel DEFOE, Robinson Crusoe, An Electronic Classics Series Publication, p.177

Extract from The Coral Island by RM.Ballatyne

THE CORAL ISLAND

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Understanding the facts:

1. Explain what you are told about:

– the boys’ routine and the basic needs they fulfill;

– the kind of life they are leading;

– their relationship.

2. Conclude about how the boys handle their situation and what traits of characters are stressed.

Interpreting

3. How does nature appear? What can you say about the characters’ relationship with it?

4. Pick out words or phrases that refer to the image which is given of this island. What is this image?

5. Pick out references to the outside world. How is it seen? What place is it given?

6. Draw conclusions about:

– what the boys’ present world is likened to;

– the role the boys have in this world.

Reacting

7. Discuss whether this passage corresponds to your personal idea of what being stranded on a desert island may offer or imply.


Three boys, Ralph Rover (the narrator), JackMartin and Peterkin Gay, are the sole survivors of a shipwreck on the coral reef of an uninhabited Polynesian island.

 For many months after this we continued to live on our island in uninterrupted harmony and happiness. Sometimes we went out a-fi shing in the lagoon, and sometimes went a-hunting in the woods, or ascended to the mountain top, by way of variety, although Peterkin always asserted that we went for the purpose of hailing any ship that might chance to heave in sight. But I am certain that none of us wished to be delivered from our captivity, for we were extremely happy, and Peterkin used to say that as we were very young we should not feel the loss of a year or two. Peterkin, as I have said before, was thirteen years of age, Jack eighteen, and I fi fteen. But Jack was very tall, strong, and manly for his age, and might easily have been mistaken for twenty.

The climate was so beautiful that it seemed to be a perpetual summer, and as many of the fruit-trees continued to bear fruit and blossom all the year round, we never wanted for a plentiful supply of food. The hogs, too, seemed rather to increase than diminish, although Peterkin was very frequent in his attacks on them with his spear. If at any time we failed in fi nding a drove, we had only to pay a visit to the plum-tree before mentioned, where we always found a large family of them asleep under its branches.

We employed ourselves very busily during this time in making various garments of cocoa-nut cloth, as those with which we had landed were beginning to be very ragged. Peterkin also succeeded in making excellent shoes out of the skin of the old hog, in the following manner. He first cut a piece of the hide, of an oblong form, a few inches longer than his foot. This he soaked in water, and, while it was wet, he sewed up one end of it, so as to form a rough imitation of that part of the heel of a shoe where the seam is. This done, he bored a row of holes all round the edge of the piece of skin, through which a tough line was passed. Into the sewed-up part of this shoe he thrust his heel, then, drawing the string tight, the edges rose up and overlapped his foot all round. It is true there were a great many ill-looking puckers in these shoes, but we found them very serviceable notwithstanding, and Jack came at last to prefer them to his long boots. We also made various other useful articles, which added to our comfort, and once or twice spoke of building us a house, but we had so great an affection for the bower, and, withal, found it so serviceable, that we determined not to leave it, nor to attempt the building of a house, which, in such a climate, might turn out to be rather disagreeable than useful.

We often examined the pistol that we had found in the house on the other side of the island, and Peterkin wished much that we had powder and shot, as it would render pig-killing much easier; but, after all, we had become so expert in the use of our sling and bow and spear, that we were independent of more deadly weapons. Diving in the Water Garden also continued to afford us as much pleasure as ever; and Peterkin began to be a little more expert in the water from constant practice. As for Jack and I, we began to feel as if water were our native element, and revelled in it with so much confidence and comfort that Peterkin said he feared we would turn into fish some day, and swim off and leave him; adding, that he had been for a long time observing that Jack was becoming more and more like a shark every day. Whereupon Jack remarked, that if he, Peterkin, were changed into a fi sh, he would certainly turn into nothing better or bigger than a shrimp.

 Robert Ballantyne, The Coral Island (1857)

RM.Ballantyne : A biography

M. Ballantyne (1825-1894)

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1. Read the following post on M.R.Ballantyne and write a report on the writer about:

-his origin

-how he came to writing

-the main characteristics of his works

-the main events in The Coral Island

-and what his main book (The CI) can be blamed for.


Scottish writer for boys, noted for the adventure story The Coral Island (1858). The book, which also inspired J.M. Barrie’s Peter Pan (1904) and William Golding’s Lord of the Flies (1954), Ballantyne’s narrative skill, colorful settings, and esourcefulness of his heroes have secured his popularity throughout generations.

The formative years
Ballantyne was educated at Edinburgh Academy (1835-37) and privately. Between the ages of 16 and 22 he was employed in Canada by the Hudson Bay Company, trading with local Indians in remote areas. Due to feelings of homesickness, Ballantyne started to write letters to his mother.
After returning to Scotland in 1847, Ballantyne worked as a clerk at the North British Railway Company in Edinburgh for two years, and was then employed by the paper-makers Alexander Cowan and Company. From 1849 to 1855 he was junior partner of Thomas Constable and Company, a printing house.

Ballantyne’s death
In 1866 Ballantyne married Jane Dickson Grant; they had four sons and two daughters. After 1883 he lived in Harrow, Middlesex. Ballantyne died on February 8, 1894, in Rome, Italy.

His works
Ballantyne’s autobiographical work Hudson’s Bay: Or Everyday Life in the Wilds of North America (1848) depicted his youth and adventures in Canada. From 1856 he devoted himself entirely to free-lance writing and giving lectures. The first stories depicted his life in Canada, later works dealt with his adventures in Britain, Africa, and elsewhere. His other early works include Snowflakes and Sunbeams, or, The Young Fur Traders (1856), Ungava: A Tale of Esquimaux-Land (1857), and The Dog Crusoe (1860). Several of his books were based on personal experience. During his career Ballantyne wrote over 80 books. He had a considerable influence on boys and young men of the time, the future builders of the British Empire, who could identify themselves with his unchaperoned boy heroes. A good part of Ballantyne’s popularity can be attributed to the celebration of British racial, cultural, and moral superiority.

The Coral Island
It tells a story of three English boys, Ralph Rover, the 15 years old narrator, three years older Jack, and humorous 14 year old Peterkin, who are shipwrecked on a deserted island in the south Pacific. It is some thirty miles in circumference and ten in diameter.The vegetation is rich and varied. The are two mountains on the island, and an underwater grotto of crystal walls, the Diamond Cave. The beaches are of pure white sand, ringed by a coral reef. The climate is warm and constant, although there are occasional violent storms.
In the true Robinson Crusoe fashion the three young Englishmen create an idyllic society despite typhoons, wild hogs, and hostile visitors. The boys make a fire by rubbing two sticks together and climb palm trees to gather thin-skinned coconuts – a mistake in detail Ballantyne was bitterly to regret. To sail to other islands they build a boat and make a sail out of the coconut cloth. After a fight Jack wins the native chief, Taroro. Then evil pirates kidnap Ralph whose adventures continue among the South Sea Islands. He manages to escape with one of the members of the crew, Bloody Bill, and with the pirates’ schooner. Bill dies and Ralph and returns to his friends. When they try to help Avatea, a Samoan girl, to go to Christian natives, Tararo seizes them. However, an English missionary appears on the scene and Tararo becomes a Christian. Finally the three heroes return to civilization, matured and much wiser. « To part is the lot of all mankind. The world is a scene of constant leave-making, and the hands that grasp in cordial greeting today, are doomed ere long to unite for the last time, when the quivering lips pronounce the word – ‘Farewell’. »

The Coral Island remains Ballantyne’s most famous novel, notably because it is said to have inspired two other famous Scottish writers, R. L. Stevenson who wrote Treasure Island in 1881 and P. M. Barrie who created Peter Pan in 1901. Another reason is its direct link with William Golding’s Lord of the Flies (1954), a novel seen as its antithesis.

Ballantyne’s achievements in literature
Ballantyne opened views into the world, that just waited for brave explorers, for the sons of the rapidly expanding literati of middle- and working-class families. He became the hero of Victorian youth. Ballantyne’s straitjacketed Puritanism did not rouse any questions, and the lighthearted descriptions of the slaughter of fauna and natives of the islands were then passed without comment. With his books Ballantyne made his contribution to the success of missionaries, soldiers, sailors, trail-blazers, and adventurers of the age of Imperialism.

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Extrait 1 de Robinson Crusoe (Chapter IV)

CHAPTER IV – FIRST WEEKS ON THE ISLAND

cast-away


Instructions :
Read the passage to make a psychological portrait of Robinson at this stage of the novel
1.What kind of account do you have ?
2.Stress on Robinson’s stream of consciousness : is he easy-going, self-confident, self-controlled, worried or full of enthusiasm and optimism)


Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn:and what I did for that, and also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place; but I must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin His creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus:“Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come, eleven of you in the boat? Where are the ten? Why were they not saved, and you lost? Why were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?” And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven so near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of her; what would have been my case, if I had been forced to have lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them? “Particularly,” said I, aloud (though to myself ), “what should I have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering?”
and that now I had all these to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning how I would provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time
that was to come, even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being destroyed at one blast – I mean my powder being blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered…
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to come after me – for I was likely to have but few heirs – as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring over them, and afflicting my mind; and as my reason began now to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:
– Evil: I am cast upon a horrible, desolate island, void of all hope of recovery.
Good: But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my ship’s company were.
Evil: I am singled out and separated, as it were, from all the world, to be miserable.
Good: But I am singled out, too, from all the ship’s crew, to be spared from death; and He that miraculously saved me from death can deliver me from this condition.
Evil: I am divided from mankind – a solitaire; one banished from human society.
Good: But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place, affording no sustenance.
Evil: I have no clothes to cover me.
Good: But I am in a hot climate, where, if I had clothes, I could hardly wear them.
Evil: I am without any defence, or means to resist any violence of man or beast.
Good: But I am cast on an island where I see no wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the coast of Africa; and what if I had been shipwrecked there?
Evil: I have no soul to speak to or relieve me.
Good: But God wonderfully sent the ship in near enough to the shore, that I have got out as many necessary things as will either supply my wants or enable me to supply myself, even
as long as I live…

Daniel DEFOE, Robinson Crusoe, An Electronic Classics Series Publication, p.53-56

Commentaire de l’extrait 2 de R.Crusoe

1. Robinson’s evolution

In the second passage, Robinson is no longer the same man he used to be. He has grown older and knows better his environment. He is more confidentand does not appear as a frightened character. He is no longer hesitating, panic-stricken and questioning himself about his fate and future.

He is no longer alone, separated from mankind. He is self-sufficient and has  a degree of control over his environment.

He has a goat for milk for his subsistance. He has a shelter over his head to face cold and heat. At this stage of the novel, Robinson appears to be a new man, healthy and controlling his environment. His relationship with Friday is a good example of Robinson’s  evolution of condition :

He looks very active. He is not static. He has full control over Friday, his slave. Robinson saved Friday who was pursued by strangers. Friday was grateful to Robinson by accepting of being his slave. So, Robinson has a slave. He named him as he wished to recall the day he saved him which was on Friday.

He sheltered Friday. He gave him clothes because he was naked. He taught Friday how to speak but above all, he taught him submission and obediance. He told him to call him Master.

 2.Robinson and Friday

The passage is still built on a contrast between the two characters. Robinson symbolises good and Friday evil. Robinson is the one who helps Friday to leave his life of wilderness and savagery.

 Friday can’t speak. He appears as a cannibal. He buries his enemies in order to eat them later. Robinson made him understand that it was bad to eat human flesh.

 Conclusion

The writer’s message is ambivalent He has a special vision of the western world which is consideredto be superior. Robinson as a character embodies power, superiority and wisdom.

M.José Robelot

Commentaire de l’extrait 1 de R.Crusoe

Introduction

The passage is at the beginning of the novel which is an adventure novel. The extract is taken from chapter 4 entitled  « first weeks on the island ». So the author Daniel Defoe provides the reader with all the necessary information to understand the plot.

He stresses on the the setting (Part 1) which helps understand the protagonist’s stream of consciousness (Part 2). In the following lines, I will deal with these two points to make a portrait of Robinson Crusoe at that stage of the novel.

  Development

This adventure novel appears as an autobiography as the narrator repeats the pronoun « I » and the possessive adjective « my ».

So we are supposed to penetrate Robinson’s state of mind. Here, the setting plays an important part. As there is nobody around, the setting can be regarded as a character.

 1.The setting as a character

The place where Robinson lives is a deserted one with « wild beasts and « savages ». He lives on an island that is a secluded place surrounded by water. His house is very modest. What he plans to build is « a cave » or a « tent ». So the setting influences Robinson’s mood. Being on this island, it is quite normal for Robinson to be dejected.

Robinson hardly rejects his faith by blaming God for his fate. We have a list of words linked to sadness. Words and expressions like « without help, abandoned, depressed ».

Robinson is weighing the pros and the cons. His terrible condition makes him dejected but at the same time he realises how lucky he is to be alive. He was shipwrecked and appears to be the only survivor. Besides, he could get some tools from the ship to make his life bearable. He had a gun and ammunition. In such a desolate condition, he can’t be consider these tools as a treasure. Thanks to these tools he can get food and defend himself against all his enemies.

 2.The setting and Robinson’s character

The setting appears here as an obstacle for Robinson. It challenges Robinson’s mental state and reason. It takes Robinson some time to have a clear vision of his own situation.

First of all, he looks panic-striken because he feels alone. Loneliness is considered as an evil in his list. He expresses this feeling of loneliness in different ways. He wrote :  « I am singled out and separated…», « I am divided from mankind – a solitaire; one banished from human society ».

However, Robinson is able to overcome his loneliness, his fear of the unknown or of his fate and of death.

The fact that he is able to recognize that he is lucky and that it’s probably his God who helped him, we realise that he recovered from his initial fright and fear of death. He is aware of the notion that he is a survivor and it’s better than being a dead body. Hope is possible. He is no more pessimistic.

  Conclusion

As a conclusion, we can say that Robinson evolved all through the passage from a dejected man to a more optimistic person realizing that he is alive and there is still hope. He has some tools to help him survive but we must mention paper and ink which helps him feel less alone and even discuss with an imaginary person

  M.José Robelot