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Royal wedding

Thursday, May 31st, 2018

 

The date

Harry and Meghan’s wedding will take place on Saturday 19 May 2018 – which breaks royal protocol due to being at the weekend. While there’s no official rule, royal weddings have always traditionally taken place on a weekday (Prince William and Kate Middleton married on Friday 29 April 2011; Princess Diana and Prince Charles on Wednesday 29 July 1981; Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip on Thursday 20 November 1947). Having the wedding in May will allow the Duchess of Cambridge some time to recover from the birth of her third child, due in April.

The venue

The couple will say their vows at the picturesque St George’s Chapel in Windsor Castle. The chapel reportedly has space for around 800 guests, in contrast to the 2,000-person capacity of Westminster Abbey, where William and Kate got married.

The cost

While it’s not known exactly what the royal wedding budget is (and it’s unlikely to ever be disclosed), Kensington Palace confirmed that the event will be paid for by the royal family – at no cost to the taxpayer.

The royal titles

After the wedding, Prince Harry and Meghan Markle will become known as their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of Sussex.

The Queen has also made her grandson Earl of Dumbarton and Baron Kilkeel.

Buckingham Palace said in a statement: “The Queen has today been pleased to confer a Dukedom on Prince Henry of Wales. His titles will be Duke of Sussex, Earl of Dumbarton and Baron Kilkeel.

“Prince Harry thus becomes His Royal Highness The Duke of Sussex, and Ms. Meghan Markle on marriage will become Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Sussex.”

The invitations

Kensington Palace confirmed that the invites were issued mid-March, and created by Barnard & Westwood, a company which has held a Royal Warrant for Printing & Bookbinding by Appointment to Her Majesty The Queen since 1985.

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The invitations were die-stamped in gold and then burnished. The text on the invitation is also die-stamped, while edges of the invitation were bevelled, then gilded. The invitation features The Three Feather Badge of The Prince of Wales, and the names of invited guests were added later by a calligraphy printer.

Around 600 people have been invited to the service at St George’s Chapel and the lunchtime reception at St George’s Hall, which is being hosted by the Queen. The palace also confirmed that 200 guests will also be invited to the private reception at Frogmore House.

The engagement photos

The couple released two photos to celebrate their engagement. The images, which were taken by Harper’s Bazaar regular photographer Alexi Lubomirski, feature a close-up shot, as well as another where the two are sat down. Both were taken at Frogmore House in Windsor.

Alexi Lubomirski

They also released a third, more candid image from the day of the shoot.

The dress

It’s widely expected that Markle will turn to a British designer for the all-important gown – and most fashion experts now believe that she has chosen Ralph & Russo, the only British couture label, to make her dress.

According to a royal insider, the duchess-to-be has opted for a hand-stitched, beaded gown which boasts a serious price tag of £100,000.

The source revealed: “It sounds a lot, but this is the wedding of the year and hundreds of hours of manpower have gone into making it, almost all by hand.”

Other sources have suggested that Markle will be wearing two dresses on her big day, changing for her second reception in the evening into something more modern. If she does this, she will be following in the footsteps of the Duchess of Cambridge wore two Sarah Burton for Alexander McQueen dresses for her wedding. Markle could, however, opt to choose a different designer for the evening. Brands including Roland Mouret, Stella McCartney, Burberry and Erdem are just some of the names being suggested as contenders.

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A Ralph & Russo wedding gown. Image: Getty

Markle previously talked about her “dream wedding dress” in a 2016 interview with Glamour, which took place following the wedding of her on-screen character Rachel Zane in Suits.

“I have the luxury of wearing beautiful pieces of clothing every day for work, so my personal style — wedding or not — is very pared down and relaxed,” she said. “Classic and simple is the name of the game, perhaps with a modern twist. I personally prefer wedding dresses that are whimsical or subtly romantic. Delphine Manivet and Christos Costarellos are faves of mine for their uniqueness and beauty. And I will always be a fan of Elie Saab. J. Mendel is spectacular as well, especially for more structural designs.”

Elie Saab couture autumn/winter 2014

Getty Images
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She also revealed that her favourite celebrity wedding dress was the one worn by Carolyn Bessette Kennedy – a simple silk column dress by Narciso Rodriguez.

The wedding party

After playing best man to brother William at his 2011 wedding to Kate Middleton, Harry is repaying the favour and has asked William to be his best man. The news was announced via the palace’s Twitter account, which shared a number of sweet photos of the duo.

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William’s children, Prince George and Princess Charlotte, will also have roles within the wedding party – as they did at Pippa Middleton’s 2017 wedding – as a page boy and bridesmaid, alongside eight other children.

Prince George and Princess Charlotte with the Duchess of Cambridge at Pippa Middleton’s wedding

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After Thomas Markle was forced to pull out of attending the wedding due to health issues (he reportedly suffered a heart attack and had to undergo surgery), Kensington Palace confirmed that Prince Charles will be walking the bride down the aisle. She will travel to the church by car with her mother, Doria Ragland.

The Duchess of Cambridge will make a low-key appearance at the nuptials, having recently welcomed her third child, Prince Louis, and will also not want to risk upstaging the bride.

Markle will not have a maid of honour or an adult bridal party, but will instead have a group of close girlfriends “assisting” her on the day.

A spokesperson for the palace revealed: “She has a very close-knit circle of friends and she didn’t want to choose one over another.”

They continued,”All have been actively involved in helping her prepare for the day and will be there in the days beforehand. She’s very happy to have their support.”

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The coverage

The wedding will be televised on a number of channels in the UK. A pool camera will be allowed inside St George’s Chapel, allowing international media outlets to plug into the source the royal family provides and broadcast the same footage.

“The couple of course wants the day to be a special, celebratory moment for their friends and family,” said a royal spokesperson. “They also want the day to be shaped so as to allow members of the public to feel part of the celebrations too and are currently working through ideas for how this might be achieved.”

There have been two other televised royal weddings in history, that of William and Kate in 2011 (to which an estimated 23 million people tuned in) and Charles and Diana in 1981.

Find out more about exactly how you can watch the royal wedding here.

Alexi Lubomirski

The cake

Claire Ptak, owner of London-based bakery Violet Cakes has been chosen to create the royal wedding cake.

“Prince Harry and Ms Markle have asked Claire to create a lemon elderflower cake that will incorporate the bright flavours of spring,” confirmed Kensington Palace. “It will be covered in buttercream and decorated with fresh flowers.

“Claire Ptak, who was raised in California, focuses on using seasonal and organic ingredients in her cake. Ms Markle previously interviewed Chef Ptak for her former lifestyle website The Tig,” they continued, adding that the couple are “looking forward to sharing the cake with guests at their wedding”.

The flowers

Meghan and Harry have selected London-based florist Philippa Craddock to design their wedding flowers, which will follow a natural wildflower theme. Her team will partner with a team from St George’s Chapel and Buckingham Palace to locally source white garden roses, foxgloves and branches of beech from the gardens of the Crown Estate and Windsor Great Park. Craddock will also incorporate peonies, which are Markle’s favourite flower, according to her now-deleted Instagram account.

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“The Royal Parks will also supply pollinator-friendly plants from their wildflower meadows,” said a statement released by Kensington Palace. “These plants provide a great habitat for bees and help to sustain healthy and biodiverse ecosystems.”

“Where possible, Philippa will use flowers and plants that are in season and blooming naturally in May,” they added.

The music

Harry and Meghan have announced the music plans for the ceremony, which includes a number of group and solo performances, including from a gospel choir and 19-year-old cellist.

“Both Prince Harry and Ms Markle have taken a great deal of interest and care in choosing the music for their service, which will include a number of well-known hymns and choral works,” the Palace tweeted.

The couple have chosen to appoint Karen Gibson and the Kingdom Choir, which is made up of a group of British musicians that have been performing together for over 20 years. Meanwhile, 19-year-old Sheku Kanneh-Mason will be performing. The cellist was the winner of the 2016 BBC Young Musician competition. The Choir of St. George’s Chapel will of course also be taking part.

Read more about the music at Harry and Meghan’s royal wedding below.

The carriage

The couple have selected the Ascot Landau carriage for their anticipated procession through Windsor Town. The royal newlyweds will travel in a one horse-drawn carriage in the Carriage Procession from St George’s Chapel, taking the couple through Windsor Town and returning to Windsor Castle along the Long Walk, Kensington Palace has confirmed. William and Kate used the Imperial State Landau on their wedding day, as it usually remains stationed in London. Their wedding was also a state wedding, and the Imperial State Landau is often used by the Queen to meet Foreign Heads of State when they arrive on State Visits to Britain.

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The honeymoon

The notoriously private couple (who managed to keep their relationship a secret for the first six months) will likely seek somewhere away from prying eyes for their post-wedding getaway. Botswana would be an obvious choice, as a country that holds a special significance for the pair; they holidayed there in the early stages of their relationship and Harry sourced a diamond from the country for Markle’s engagement ring. However, it’s more recently been strongly rumoured that the couple have chosen Namibia as their honeymoon destination.

However, what we do know is that the couple will not be going away on honeymoon straight after their wedding, but will instead be heading off a little later. Kensington Palace confirmed that the newly married couple would be undertaking royal duties the week after their wedding.

“The couple will be going on honeymoon, but not straightaway,” said Kensington Palace spokesman Jason Knauf at a press conference. “They will have their first engagement as a married couple in the week after the wedding.”

Elephants at the Mashatu game reserve in Botswana

Getty Images

Reports also suggest that the newlyweds may choose a different African country to honeymoon in – with the neighbouring Namibia one of the rumoured destinations. As the least densely populated country in the world it would certainly provide the privacy they’d be craving after such a public wedding.

The royal titles

Buckingham Palace said in a statement: “The Queen has today been pleased to confer a Dukedom on Prince Henry of Wales. His titles will be Duke of Sussex, Earl of Dumbarton and Baron Kilkeel.

“Prince Harry thus becomes His Royal Highness The Duke of Sussex, and Ms. Meghan Markle on marriage will become Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Sussex.”

méthodologie oral

Friday, April 27th, 2018

eo_expressions_utiles

Bon travail !!

Gallery

Monday, December 4th, 2017

http://nico-gomez.com/index.php

Brexit and Northern Ireland

Sunday, December 3rd, 2017

Brexit Countdown: Why is the Northern Ireland border question so hard?

The international border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland is about 310 miles long with, depending on how many tracks you include, as many as 275 crossing points.

In reality, the entire border is a crossing point because, apart from road signs changing from miles per hour to kilometres per hour, there is no physical infrastructure to see.

The concern is that all that could change when the UK leaves the European Union, and Ireland stays as an EU member state.

Why can’t there be a hard border?

Irish border sign

Part of the concern is political. The 1998 Good Friday Agreement, the basic building block of peace in Northern Ireland, removed security checkpoints from the border and helped make it all but invisible. Customs checks could undermine much of that progress.

Like many peace deals, the Good Friday Agreement is a masterpiece of creative ambiguity, allowing different people to take different things from different parts of the text.

Shared membership of the European Union made that much easier to achieve. Ireland wants a clear written commitment that the agreement will be respected in all its parts.

The other concern of course is economic. The economies of Northern Ireland and the Republic are completely interconnected. Huge amounts of goods and services cross the border every day without checks of any kind.

Brexit negotiators are currently looking through more than 140 areas of north-south co-operation, involving everything from the single electricity market to environmental protection.

It is also estimated that at least 30,000 people cross the border every day for work. The movement of people is governed by the Common Travel Area between the UK and Ireland, which predates the EU.

Both sides are determined that the Common Travel Area will remain in place, but that in itself doesn’t resolve the challenge of a hard border re-emerging.

So if no-one thinks a hard border is a good idea, why can’t everyone agree now that it won’t be re-imposed?

Because the UK has announced that it is leaving the EU single market and the customs union. That immediately turns the internal border in Ireland into an external border for the single market and the customs union – with all the potential checks that implies.

At the moment, all rules and regulations, north and south, are exactly the same – on food safety, on animal welfare… you name it.

Again, it’s a relationship based in large part on agreements covered by joint membership of the EU. As soon as that changes, border checks may have to begin again.

That’s why the Irish government wants a written guarantee from the UK that Northern Ireland will continue to follow EU rules – so goods can continue to move freely across the border.

“It seems essential to us,” said the Irish Foreign Minister Simon Coveney earlier this month, “that there is no emergence of regulatory divergence from the rules of the internal market or the customs unions which are necessary for meaningful north-south co-operation, or an all-Ireland economy that is consistent with the Good Friday Agreement.”

In other words, both Ireland and the rest of the EU are suggesting that Northern Ireland should stay within the customs union and the single market.

But there would have to be checks somewhere between the EU and the UK, wouldn’t there?

Yes. It would – in effect – push the customs border out into the Irish Sea… an internal customs border, if you like, between Northern Ireland and Great Britain.

Would that be acceptable to the UK government, or to its Unionist political allies in Northern Ireland, the DUP? In a word, no.

“We respect the European Union desire to protect the legal order of the single market and customs union,” the UK’s Brexit Secretary David Davis said in Brussels recently.

“But that cannot come at a cost to the constitutional and economic integrity of the United Kingdom.”

Couldn’t the UK simply declare the border open on a unilateral basis, and impose no checks or tariffs at all?

If it did that then, under World Trade Organization rules, it would have to do the same for the rest of the world. The UK economy would be swamped with cheap imports.

The EU would impose checks anyway which might allow the UK government to shift the blame on to Brussels. But that would be a pretty futile gesture.

So is there a solution?

Irish border

If it was easy, it would already have been done.

The EU argues that the UK’s red lines on Ireland – no border on the one hand, and UK exit from the single market and the customs union on the other – are fundamentally incompatible.

The British government has spoken of technological fixes such as pre-screening of goods, and trusted trader schemes.

The EU says such things could speed up border transit, but it would be nowhere near enough to avoid the return of some border checks.

Alternatively, Irish officials argue that there are already cases of rules and regulations being different in Northern Ireland than in the rest of the UK, and they point to other examples such as Hong Kong in China where there are different regulatory arrangements within sovereign states.

Intense negotiations are taking place to try to come up with a solution that would ensure a) no divergence of regulations in key areas; and b) the creation of some form of customs partnership on the island of Ireland, which doesn’t threaten the constitutional order of the UK.

But if a fix emerges that seems to turn Northern Ireland into a back door route into the single market, then other EU countries will cry foul.

So even if all parties agree in the next two weeks that “sufficient progress” on Ireland has been made, there will be a long way to go before any kind of lasting solution emerges.

Victoria and Abdul trailer

Sunday, November 19th, 2017
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Movie !

Sunday, April 24th, 2016

 

Brooklyn !

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Mixed-Blood nations in Canada

Sunday, April 17th, 2016

The Challenge of Mixed-Blood Nations

Countries with indigenous nations usually also have mixed-blood nations composed of people of indigenous descent and other nations or races. In an increasingly shrinking world where ethnicity is a quantity in flux, it is sometimes difficult to get a handle on how they relate to one another. The two groups would seem to be natural allies. But the reality isn’t that simple.

To begin with, much depends on the relations of the mixed bloods to the larger nation state. Take Canada, where the mixed-blood community is called Métis, a French word meaning—well, mixed blood. The Métis historically have had friendly relations with Indian communities. But currently they claim their own history and culture, a hybrid of European and indigenous community. Some Métis identify and live with tribal communities, while others do not. These separatists believe themselves to be a distinct nation or ethnic group from the indigenous nations and from Canada. Métis communities in Canada have separate land claims and negotiations with the Canadian government.

Meanwhile, in Latin and South America, as well as in Africa, people of mixed blood usually do not strongly identify with indigenous nations. They tend to reject indigenous ways in favor of national culture. Mestizos, for instance, are persons of indigenous ancestry who have taken up national culture and do not live in or engage with members of indigenous tribal communities.

This disengagement, in fact, can be quite vehement. Mestizo nations like Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, and many others segregate their indigenous communities and maintain hostile and repressive political and cultural relations over indigenous nations. As for assimilated Mestizos, they can generally be relied on to embrace the values and lifestyles of modern market economies and broad national culture while openly rejecting their indigenous counterparts.

In the United States, the situation is particularly complex because there is no official designation of a mixed-blood nation. Mixed-blood individuals, if they qualify as a member of a tribe, can choose tribal membership. Many tribal communities have blood quantum criteria as low as a quarter; some, like the Cherokee, allow membership if a person can prove lineal descent on one of the official Cherokee rolls collected by the federal government. As it is, mixed bloods who do not qualify for tribal membership may be U.S. citizens, but they do not have indigenous rights.

Recognizing these issues is vital because census data over the past two decades suggests that there are at least several million people in the U.S. who are of mixed indigenous and other race descent and who are probably not tribal members. Many mixed bloods consider indigenous ancestry as one ancestral line among several nationalities that came to the U.S. Mixed bloods can be of English, German, Japanese or any number of other nationalities, as well as being descended from an Indian tribe.

During the period of forced assimilation, from the 1890s to 1960, many mixed bloods undoubtedly rejected Indian identity and the communities and cultures that went with it. They were likelier to hide references to an indigenous lineal background. But with the rise of the various ethnic movements of the 1960s, many individuals have proudly claimed Indian descent, even if they don’t have direct contact or cultural participation in a tribal community.

Indeed, in the past few decades, mixed bloods in the U.S. have been more understanding toward indigenous identity and the issues confronting tribal communities. While millions of U.S. mixed bloods are not tribal members, they are proud of their Indian ancestry. You can often find them on the front lines of political activism as allies and supporters of indigenous rights and issues. It can safely be said that today, Indian mixed bloods in the U.S. have formed an ethnic group that often identifies with indigenous needs.

Thus, Indigenous Peoples and mixed-blood communities might, at first glance, appear to have much in common. But depending on the country and its history, their interests aren’t always congruent. Indigenous mixed-blood relations can be cordial, even warm. Or they can be fraught with tension—or worse.

 

Read more at http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2013/04/25/challenge-mixed-blood-nations-148961

The world’s most spoken languages and where they are spoken

Sunday, April 17th, 2016

link here

The world's most spoken languages and where they are spoken

‘Legends of the Fall’ Author Jim Harrison Dead at 78

Tuesday, March 29th, 2016

Jim Harrison, the fiction writer, poet, outdoorsman and reveler who wrote with gruff affection for the country’s landscape and rural life and enjoyed mainstream success in middle age with his historical saga “Legends of the Fall,” has died at age 78.

IMAGE: Jim Harrison

The versatile and prolific author completed more than 30 books, most recently the novella collection “The Ancient Minstrel,” and was admired worldwide.

Sometimes likened to Ernest Hemingway for the range and kinds of his interests, he was a hunter and fisherman who savored his time in a cabin near his Michigan hometown, a drinker and Hollywood scriptwriter who was close friends with Jack Nicholson and came to know Sean Connery, Orson Welles and Warren Beatty among others.

Published in 1979, “Legends of the Fall” was a collection of three novellas that featured the title story about Montana rancher Col. William Ludlow and his three sons of sharply contrasting personalities and values, the narrative extending from before World War I to the mid-20th century, from San Francisco to Singapore.

The book was a best-seller, and Harrison worked on the script for an Oscar-nominated 1994 film of the same name starring Brad Pitt, Anthony Hopkins and Aidan Quinn.

Harrison’s screenplay credits also included “Revenge,” starring Kevin Costner, and the Nicholson film “Wolf.” But he would liken the unpredictable and nerve wracking process to being trapped in a “shuddering elevator” and reminded himself of his marginal status by inscribing a putdown by a Hollywood executive, “You’re just a writer,” on a piece of paper and taping it above his desk.

Harrison had displayed numerous talents before the general public caught on to him. He was an accomplished poet and sports journalist and a fiction writer with a strong feel for open spaces and the pull and consequences of history. He set many works in the rural north of his native Michigan, including the detective novels “The Great Leader” and “The Big Seven,” and used Nebraska as the backdrop for one of his most acclaimed works, “Dalva”

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President Obama in Cuba, a history-making visit

Monday, March 21st, 2016

it is a history-making presidential visit and it is breaking decades of tense relations with communist Cuba.

more here