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Discours indirect

Voici un petit récapitulatif sur le discours indirect, si cela vous pose encore des problèmes:

1-      Pensez à décaler les temps dans le passé quand le discours est rapporté à l’aide d’un verbe au prétérit :

“I am here!”, he said. Présent simple

He said that he was therePrétérit simple

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“I am leaving now”, he said. Présent en be+ing.

He said he was leaving then. Prétérit en be+ing.

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“I will come tomorrow”, he said. Futur.

He said he would come the following day. Conditionnel.

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“I have seen her this morning”, he said. Présent perfect.

He said that he had seen her that morning. Pluperfect.

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Don’t be shy!”, he said. Impératif.

He told her not to be shy. Infinitif.

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“ You may leave”, he said. Modal.

He said he might leave. Forme prétérit du modal.

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“You must do your homework”, he said. Must qui indique une obligation.

He said I must / had to do my homework.  On garde ‘must’ ou on utilise son équivalent ‘have to’ au prétérit.

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“He must be rich”, he said. Le modal ‘must’ sert à faire une hypothèse.

He said he must be rich. On garde ‘must’.

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“They came last week”, he said. Prétérit.

He said they had come the week before. Pluperfect.

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4 exceptions pour lesquelles le prétérit ne se transforme pas en pluperfect:

–         Quand on a un verbe d’état :

“I was ill two days ago”, he said.

He said he was ill two days before.

–          Avec le prétérit modal/ prétérit de l’irréel:

“If you came tomorrow, I would be very happy”, he said.

He said that he would be very happy if I came the following day.

–          Dans les subordonnées de temps (après when, until, as soon as, once…)

“When I was young, I was very talkative”, he said.

He said that he was very talkative when he was young. (subordonnée de temps + verbe d’état).

–          Avec les habitudes (avec often) :

“I often went to London when I lived in England”, he said.

He said he often went to London when he lived in England. (habitude + subordonnée de temps)

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2- Les marqueurs de temps et de lieu changent (en bleu dans les exemples précédents + voir le cours)

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3- Les pronoms personnels, les adjectifs et pronoms possessifs changent:

He told her: « You will be late! »

He told her she would be late.

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4- Pour introduire le discours, vous avez le choix entre de très nombreux verbes. Pensez à varier ces verbes. Attention, certains verbes ont une construction particulière (verbes prépositionnels, verbes suivis de ‘to’)

« I am sorry I’m late », he said.

He apologized for being late.

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Dans les questions directes, on a une inversion: auxiliaire + sujet + verbe. Au discours indirect, cette inversion disparait, on a alors le sujet (+ l’auxiliaire) + le verbe.

« Where do you live? » he asked me.

He asked me where I lived. (le présent devient du prétérit, l’inversion disparait donc on a ‘sujet’ + ‘verbe’

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Pour les Yes/ No questions, on rajoute ‘if’ ou son synonyme ‘whether’:

« Will you come tomorrow? », he asked me.

He asked me if / whether I would come the following day.

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Vous pouvez trouver des exercices sur le discours indirect à la fin du manuel p.240

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