Recap of places and forms of power


How important is higher education in shaping young people’s mind and their future  life ?


 A definition of higher education

 What is higher education? Why do we  need it? Higher education is education provided by universities, colleges, and other institutions that award academic degrees. Higher education includes both the undergraduate (i.e., college) and the graduate (or postgraduate) levels. We study higher education in the perspective of universities as places and forms of power. We will try to explain through the texts we studied how higher education can shape young people’s mind. We start with a definition of higher education. Then, we will focus on the link between higher education and young people’s future.

B)The importance of higer education

It is worthwhile to note that in many western countries, schools and education are compulsory (obligatoire) until 16. It shows that many nations are aware of the importance of education.

Exemples : Develop what you learn in class about the two texts :

  • The cost of University : For or against the rise of tuition fees ?
  • Coping with the cost, by Crystal.

These two texts show that young people understand what is at stake : Their future.

They demonstrate against the rise of the tuition fees (text 1)

They do their best and work part-time to get a degree. (text 2)

C)The purpose of higher education

a)Higher education seen by Chapter 11’s parents

1)Higher education offers graduates more jobs to choose and opportunities.

2) Higher education improves an individual’s quality of life. Studies show that, compared to high school graduates, college graduates have longer life spans, better access to health care, better dietary and health practices, greater economic stability and security, more prestigious employment and greater job satisfaction, less dependency on government assistance, greater knowledge of government, greater community service and leadership, more volunteer work, more self-confidence, and less criminal activity and incarceration

3) Education is knowledge. When you have knowlege, you can dominate, manipulate or help other people. So, education and knowledge are power !

All these goals of higher education are embodied by Chapter 11’s parents.

  1. b) Chapter 11 and higer education

-his self-transformation : see text

-The tennis table match with his father

-His interests in anthropology

Chapter 11’s purpose of higher education is different from that of his parents.

Knowledge is freedom. It emancipates you : How does universities emancipate Chapter 11 ?

He has become more independent, more mature, more critical of what he sees. He is close to nature and more respectful to the environment. He is like his idol : John Lennon. What does J.Lennon stand for ?

  1. D) Universities as places of power

Examples of universities as places of power : Harvard, Eton, Cambridge. They also train and educate most of the heads of states of the world.


Parents pass on values and principles to their children. Education is a foundation of modern and democratic societies. Why is education so important ? It makes ignorance decline. Ignorance means intolerance, wars, destruction.



Il s’agit de présenter une notion ( Schools and universities, instruments of power) à travers les thèmes étudiés en classe (higher education in the UK, for or against the rise of tuition fees, Students’ protest and positive discrimination in universities).


MOBILISER   SES CONNAISSANCES Se rappeler les grandes lignes des différentes   séances :-For   or against the rise of tuition fees,-Students’   protest

-and   positive discrimination in universities

Noter toutes les idées liées au sujet

Utiliser le lexique approprié pour une langue   riche. (contestation, opposition…)

Employer les structures :

« Causes, conséquences, effets

Obligation (modaux) etc…

Influence sur autrui

Mots de liaison


En classant vos idées, le plan apparait.

Advantages and disadvantages

For                                  Against









L’introduction et la conclusion sont d’une   importance capitale. Elles doivent être bien construites pour être sûr   d’avoir sa moyenne.


Elle introduit le sujet avec une idée générale.

Elle   présente et explicite la problématique.

Elle annonce le plan.


Elle reprend succinctement les grandes lignes du   développement. Vous donnez votre opinion sur la question et vous faites une   ouverture sur un autre sujet.


CONSEILS POUR L’ORAL -Parler fort et articuler-Ne pas hésiter à se reprendre, à reformuler si   vous pensez que vous n’avez pas été clair.-Accentuer les mots porteurs de sens.

-Regarder votre interlocuteur

-Quand vous avez travaillé une Notion, faites des   fiches pour chacun des thèmes travaillés.




(Some questions to help you assess your knowledge)

Places and seats of power




1.To what extent can you say that schools and   universities are instruments of power? 


 2.To what extent can higher education be   regarded as elitist? 


3.Are schools and universities the only   instruments of power?


 4.What do you know about the present-day   problem of higher education in western countries like the USA, the UK or   France?


 5.Should universities use positive   discrimination to increase diversity?




 1.Do you think that journalists are powerful?


2.Print media versus online media: Which one   is superior?


 3.Online papers: a new era


 4. Bloggers: New journalists.


 5.Do you trust the news?


The higher education sector is made up mainly of the universities and colleges of higher education which lead to degree level. The top of it is Ph.D level.

On the one hand, Britain ‘s universities still enjoy a great deal of academic freedom in selecting their own students, defining their courses, awarding their degrees and recruiting their staff but they depend on the government for funding.

Higher education students receive financial support from their local education authority.

In the past, access to higher education was too restricted. Things changed but men have been outnumbered . Most of the applications came from women.

British universities.

British universities have a tradition of elitism and excellence. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge date back to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and are among the best universities in the world. They are and have always been the institutions at the top of the educational hierarchy. They attract many of the brightest students of their generation and award the most prestigious certificates. They are the main universities of the elite and shape a homogeneous group with a common cultural identity rooted in the idea of a liberal education centred on the arts and humanities. Indeed, the Establishment is mostly interested in finance and administration.

The teaching at Oxford and Cambridge is based on the tutorial system. The don teaches one or two students, sometimes more.

The balance between teaching and research has shifted in favour of research. Oxford and Cambridge are institutions where the future leading politicians and civil servants used to go to learn  the proper sociocultural values.

London university was founded in 1836 to provide university education for young people who could not attend Oxford or Cambridge because they did not belong to the higher classes. New universities appeared to “accommodate with the increasing number of students“. Open universities were created for mature students who followed correspondence courses. Open universities widened access to higher education for adults.

Polytechnics and Colleges of Higher education

Polytechnics were created to meet the increasing demand for vocational, professional and industrially based courses in higher education. They filled the gap between university and further education work, bearing in mind the needs of industry. Polytechnics give a wide range of courses in business, administration, engineering, technology.

Unlike Polytechnics which prepares for business, industry, industry, engineering and technology, Colleges of Higher Education lead to socially-oriented professions ranging from teacher training to the caring professions, art and design, the media and public administration.

The future development of higher education in a learning society.

The problem with higher education is that access depends on the ability to pay. The governments want more people to enter higher education.

They  developed part-time degree courses. They also have to develop a more efficient system of funding, a fairer system for repaying loans

Sophie Loussouarn,

Definitely British, Absolutely American, Ellipses,2001

Watch on the internet

Documents video

 1.Higher Education in US  What Does It Cost  – YouTube.flv 2.UK students protest over university fees – YouTube.flv 3.Saving Money for College – YouTube.flv


Q&A: Tuition fees

From September 2012, universities in England are raising tuition fees to up to £9,000 per year, amid major budget cuts to institutions’ teaching budgets. The controversial policy, backed by parliament in December 2010, sparked angry street protests. It was developed as the government’s response to a review of higher education funding by former BP chief Lord Browne. Universities in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland will also be able to raise their fees from 2012, but their home students will not be affected. How much?The government is allowing universities in England to charge up to £9,000 per year for undergraduate courses, raising the cap from its 2011/12 level of £3,375. Universities wanting to charge more than £6,000 have to undertake measures, such as offering bursaries, summer schools and outreach programmes, to encourage students from poorer backgrounds to apply

Getting a college education is considered a stepping stone to the American dream, but achieving that dream is growing increasingly more difficult for millions of Americans because of the spiraling costs of higher education. State support for higher education continues to shrink as financial pressures squeeze budgets at state capitals across the nation. To make up for shortfalls in state funding, universities are raising tuition and fees, forcing college students and their families deeper into debt.





Resume the main ideas from the above articles and videos (10 lines)





Choose one topic and make a 4 minutes presentation.

 1.To what extent can you say that schools and   universities are instruments of power?

2.To what extent can higher education be   regarded as elitist?

3.Are schools and universities the only   instruments of power?

4.What do you know about the present-day   problem of higher education in western countries like the USA, the UK or   France?

5.Should universities use positive   discrimination to increase diversity? (p.24; PASSWORD)

The main ideas from the video and articles.

All through European countries and even across the Atlantic, higher education has been facing a general crisis.

As governments make cuts in education budgets, it has become more and more difficult for students as well as for university heads who must find out funds to run their establishment. To cope with the financial problems they increase tuition fees.

With the increasing cost of higher education, students have to work part-time or ask for loans. Students’living conditions are getting worse. Many of them are forced into debt.

Nowadays, strikes are breaking out both in Europe, the USA and Canada as students can’t afford tuition fees. They voice their discontent in the streets of London, New York or Toronto and reject the governments’s drastic plans.

Consequently, if tuition fees go on increasing, few students will have access to universities. Only students from rich families will be able to attend courses at universities. Students from low-income families will be discriminated against and the universities will no longer be a diverse place, a place where you can find people from different social and ethnic backgrounds.

To some extent, positive discrimination may be a solution to solve the problem with the increasing tuition fees. But it is an expensive measure to carry on. In addition, everyone knows that positive discrimination as well as affirmative action have been criticized and considered as reverse discrimination.

Education does not seem to be the top priority for most of the western nations. Politicians must understand that the future of their nations lie in the training of their students and investment in higher education.



 Une problématique, des problématiques.

 La notion est abordée à travers l’institution universitaire et le journalisme, donc sous le prisme de plusieurs domaines, l’éducation,  les sciences et les technologies nouvelles.

D’une part, cela nous conduit à explorer les tensions et conflits “invisibles” que se livrent les différentes parties (classes sociales, sexes, ethnies) au sein des établissements universitaires. A quoi servent les universités? Le but ultime de ces établissements serait-il de formater des citoyens ou de contribuer à former des esprits libres ?

D’autre part, les nouvelles technologies de l’information et internet en particulier, ont complètement modifié le paysage audi-visuel. Quels sont les enjeux? L’argent, l’influence, le pouvoir?

On assiste aussi à une democratisation de l’information qui est une source de difficulties et de questionnements quant à la question de l’objectivité de l’information. Quelle est la nature de ces lutes entre journalists amateurs, blogueurs et les professionnels?


 The notion of “space” is closely linked to that of power.

If you have land and you can protect it, it means you have power and money. In the following chapters, I will focus on schools and universities as seats or spaces of power.

To what extent can you say that the universities are decision-making arenas, forums of action, opportunities.  I will also stress the Press as a form of power as it is often called the fourth power. So we will have to find examples showing how the Press can affect policies, discourses and decisions. Indeed, there are other “spaces of power we have to signal such as banks, non-governmental organizations, lobbies. We also have to show how they impact the lives and interests of people.

 Different forms of power

A positive and negative vision of power prevailed.

Power is often regarded as a form of domination. It is seen in a win-lose relationship. Having power involves taking it subtly or by force and use it to control and dominate. In politics, those who rule control resources and decision-making. Those who are deprived of resources like land, healthcare or jobs and are marginalized. This form of power generates inequality, injustice and poverty.

To counteract this form of power, some people develop the idea of finding common ground to build collective strength. They base their action on mutual support, solidarity and collaboration, people with talents. This kind of power tries to build bridges across different interests to reduce social conflicts and promote solidarity and equitable relationships