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… Christopher Columbus, America and history


Les élèves jouent les personnages(prévoir une mise en scène minimale, une étoffe,  des fruits …)

Wampanoag1 and Wampanoag2:

You are welcome on our land! We are the wampanoag tribe!

Christopher Columbus:

Hello, my name is Christopher Columbus. I am really tired.

I haven’t got anything to eat and we are very hungry! We don’t know where we are!

Have you got anything  for my men, their children and the ladies, please?

A lot of men were sick on the ship! They vomited and we didn’t have enough food for everyone.

– Wampanoag1: Well, yes, we have a few things here. We’ve got eggs and fruit…and meat as well!

-Wampanoag2: We’ve got clean water and a fire! Come closer!

-CC: Thank you so much! It is very kind of you!

W1 and W2: Come in our tepee!

CC: You speak English very well!

W1 and W2: We know Europe very well!

CC: We are very lucky! Come on folks!


They all step inside the tepee.

The next autumn was a season with a lot of fruit and the English people invited the wampanoag for a meal…to say ‘thanks’.

They had turkey with cranberries.

This was the first Thanksgiving meal!


Our journey to … Unsere Reise nach Freiburg!

My journey, our journey in Freiburg…Unsere Reise nach Freiburg!

Culture, culture, Kultur and Europa!!!

Ganz gut! Ich mag dass gern!

1)Compréhension orale et expression orale:

BBC News – Annual ice swim draws big crowd in Berlin


2)Le Quartier Vauban de Fribourg-en-Brisgau, est le premier écoquartier du monde. Il a été construit en 1996 sur une base militaire française désaffectée (qui ne servait plus).

Kultur bitte sehr!

Villes jumelées… Twin towns…



la terre:

la voiture:

le trésor:

le portable:

la facture:

le soleil:


la lumière:

la fenêtre:


das Handy, the light, das Abenteuer, the window, die Rechnung, das Wagen, the car, the earth, die Erde, water, das Wasser, sterben, to die, das Licht, die Fenster, the mobile phone, die Sonne, der Schatz, the treasure, the sun, the bill, adventure

Cela me plaît beaucoup!

Ich mag das gern. Ich mag das nicht. I like it a lot! It looks great and smashing!

I don’t think much of it! Awesome! Ganz schön!

Il y a beaucoup de maisons aux couleurs différentes!

Es gibt vielen Hausen mit verschiedenen Farben.

There are lots of houses with different colours.

All the houses have the same colour (GB) color (US)

III-Was bedeutet?: « Kinderspiele sind überall erlaubt »

Les enfants sont autorisés à jouer dans un espace restreint et délimité.

Les enfants sont autorisés à jouer dans tous les endroits.

Les enfants ne sont pas autorisés à jouer.

Children are allowed to play everywhere.

Chidren are not allowed to play anywhere.

Children are allowed to play in certain areas.

IV – Traduire

Nous partirons en bus:

Nous ferons des achats:

Nous verrons beaucoup de choses différentes:

Nous reviendrons fatigués mais heureux!

Nous serons fiers d’être européens!

Ireland (source: Académie de Rouen) Mr Vittecocq Ia-Ipr

BBC Republic of Ireland home page http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/1038581.stm

BBC Northern Ireland home page http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/index.shtml

Welcome to the street, radio 4, http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/world/onyourstreet/thestreet/ireland/

http://yahooligans.yahoo.com/Around_the_World/Countries/Ireland/ (collège)

National symbols

The Republic of Ireland’s flag http://www.enchantedlearning.com/europe/ireland/flagquizbw.shtml (collège)

National anthem http://www.national-anthems.net/web/find.webpage?from=real&what=ireland&id=EI

Saint Patrick’s day, video http://www.historychannel.com/exhibits/stpatricksday/?page=video (collège et lycée)

Northern Ireland, interactive book http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/spring/patricks/book.shtml


Map and facts  http://worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/europe/ie.htm (collège et lycée)

Map http://www.enchantedlearning.com/europe/ireland/ (collège)

Map  http://www.enchantedlearning.com/europe/ireland/activity.shtml (collège)

CIA -The World Fact Book http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ei.html#Intro ( Ressources pour les enseignants )

Discover Ireland http://www.discoverireland.com/gb/about-ireland/

Dublin http://www.visitdublin.com/

Belfast for kids   http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/twocities/belfast/citytours.shtml (collège)

Northern Ireland http://www.geographia.com/northern-ireland/


Christmas in Ireland http://www.christmasarchives.com/ireland.html

Famous Dubliners – George Bernard. Shaw, James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, William Butler Yeats –



George Bernard Shaw http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/audiointerviews/profilepages/shawg1.shtml

William Butler Yeats http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/audiointerviews/profilepages/yeatsw1.shtml

The James Joyce Center http://www.jamesjoyce.ie/home/

Bloody Sunday The film http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0280491/


Historical facts

The island history http://www.discoverireland.com/gb/about-ireland/history/

Timeline Northern Ireland, BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/ni/first_migrations.shtml

Timeline (Post WWII Northern Ireland) http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/post_civil_rights.shtml

Saint Patrick http://www.historychannel.com/exhibits/stpatricksday/

http://www.history.com/topics/st-patricks-day/photos#st-patricks-dayThe troubles

http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/find_out/guides/uk/northern_ireland/newsid_1613000/1613043.stm ( collège)

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/troubles/ (Ressources pour les enseignants et lycée)

http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/index.html (Ressources pour les enseignants)

Streetscape in Belfast, Interactive activity http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/eyewitness/activities/index.shtml

Bloody Sunday

BBC interactive guide http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/northern_ireland/2000/bloody_sunday/map/default.stm

BBC Coverage http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/northern_ireland/2000/bloody_sunday_inquiry/default.stm


Photos and audio clips: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/events/bsunday/wlrphotos.htm#audio (Ressources pour les enseignants et lycée)

Series of Audio Clips http://www.paramountclassics.com/bloodysunday/main.html ( lycée)


U2, Irish rock group facts: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U2

Bloody Sunday, Lyrics http://www.u2.com/music/lyrics.php?song=23&list=s

The Cranberries, Irish pop group facts http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cranberries

Bob Geldof, profile http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4564332.stm

Rebel songs (with audio clips): http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/easterrising/songs/ (lycée)

The street, Ireland, musicians, listen to Sinaed O’Connor http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/world/onyourstreet/thestreet/ireland/ireland_country.shtml (collège)



The Irish Times http://www.ireland.com/ (Ressources pour les enseignants)


Gaelic words and phrases http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/alba/foghlam/beag_air_bheag/section15/index.shtml





http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbbc/sport/findasport/hurling.shtml (collège)

Traditional sports http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport_in_Ireland

and what about Katla?

Could another Icelandic volcano erupt soon?

By Victoria Gill
Science reporter, BBC News

Map showing Iceland's major volcanoes and tectonic plate  boundaries (Image: BBC)

As scientists and air travellers alike keep a close eye on Iceland’s ongoing volcanic eruption, some reports suggest that another, much bigger, volcano could stir in the near future.

Katla is Eyjafjallajokull’s more active neighbour, and scientists believe that there may be a link between the two volcanoes.

This link has not been physically proven, explains Magnus Tumi Gudmundsson a geophysicist from the University of Iceland. A circumstantial, historical connection “is putting people’s eyes on Katla,” he says.

“We know of four Eyjafjallajokull eruptions in the past [dating back to AD 500] and in three out of these four cases, there has been a Katla eruption either at the same time or shortly after.

“By shortly, I mean timescales of months to a year.

“We consider that the probability of Katla erupting in the near future has increased since Eyjafjallajokull went.”

Kathryn Goodenough from the British Geological Survey points out that, as yet, there is no physical explanation for this apparent link.

It seems that when Eyjafjallajokull goes off, Katla tends to follow.
Kathryn Goodenough
British Geological Survey

“Scientists don’t yet know what the connection is,” she says.

“But we know there are fissures running between the two volcanoes. And they’re quite close to each other.

“They’re also being subjected to the same tectonic forces. So the chances are that if magma can find a pathway to rise beneath one of them, it can find its way to rise beneath the other.”

Researchers do know that the two volcanoes have separate magma chambers, but many suspect that these chambers are physically linked in some way, deep beneath the surface of the Earth.

“But this is only speculative,” says Dr Goodenough. “We don’t have geophysical evidence that makes that clear.”

Overdue eruption

Katla’s last eruption was in 1918. It lasted for three weeks and up to a cubic kilometre of material exploded through its vent.

“It’s a much more active volcano than Eyjafjallajokull – it has had about 20 eruptions in the last 1,000 years, so it erupts about once every 50 years on average,” says Professor Gudmundsson.

The combination of ice and magma makes for an explosive eruption

The combination of ice and magma makes for an explosive eruption

“At first glance people would say it’s now long overdue. But the larger the eruption, the longer the pause (in) time that follows it, and that 1918 eruption was large.”

At the moment, there is no seismic activity detectable underneath Katla that would indicate that magma is moving upward underneath it.

Scientists from the Icelandic Meteorological Office are looking at such signals and updating their website regularly with the seismic data that is being produced.

But Dr Goodenough points out that, with Eyjafjallajokull “we only had a few hours warning”.

“Seismic monitoring does not necessarily give you advance notice of an eruption.”

But it remains a case of watch, wait and look for signs of activity, because it is almost impossible to draw clear conclusions from the historical record, which is simply too short.

While both volcanoes have been repeatedly erupting for millions of years, the earliest eruptions on scientists’ records occurred less than 2,000 years ago.

“We haven’t established any physical link [between the volcanoes] – we only have this circumstantial evidence,” says Professor Gudmundsson. “And we simply don’t have enough data to be able to work out what the probability of a Katla eruption is.”

Flooding concern

Katla is much larger than Eyjafjallajokull, with a magma chamber about 10 times the size.

If and when it does go off, the combination of the magma and the large ice sheet covering the volcano could lead to explosive activity for a long time, says Dr Goodenough.

It is the explosive nature of the current volcanic eruption, which caused an ash plume to be sent high into the atmosphere and affect flights in the UK and Europe.

More worryingly for the people of Iceland, an eruption at Katla would probably cause major flooding. The volcano’s ice sheet is 600-700m thick and all of this ice would quickly melt on to the surrounding area, which is primarily agricultural land.

But Professor Gudmundsson says there are “no signs yet” of an impending eruption. “Our eyes are not glued to Katla, we are thinking about the eruption that is happening now.”

But Dr Goodenough adds that “substantial amounts of magma” are rising underneath both volcanoes.

“And it seems that when Eyjafjallajokull goes off, Katla tends to follow.”

Chapter 38 Jane Eyre

Chapter 38 Jane Eyre


usual exhortation of the reader who is asked to testify + unusual comment of a wedding
Reader, I married him. A quiet wedding we had: he and I, the parson and clerk, were alone present. When we got back from church, I went into the kitchen of the manor-house, where Mary was cooking the dinner and John cleaning the knives, and I said –
casual and detached  tone: not usually attributed to someone who makes such an announcement
“Mary, I have been married to Mr. Rochester this morning.” The housekeeper and her husband were both of that decent phlegmatic order of people, to whom one may at any time safely communicate a remarkable piece of news without incurring the danger of having one’s ears pierced by some shrill ejaculation, and subsequently stunned by a torrent of wordy wonderment. Mary did look up, and she did stare at me: the ladle with which she was basting a pair of chickens roasting at the fire, did for some three minutes hang suspended in air; and for the same space of time John’s knives also had rest from the polishing process: but Mary, bending again over the roast, said only –

“Have you, Miss? Well, for sure!”

A short time after she pursued–“I seed you go out with the master, but I didn’t know you were gone to church to be wed;” and she basted away. John, when I turned to him, was grinning from ear to ear.

“I telled Mary how it would be,” he said: “I knew what Mr. Edward” (John was an old servant, and had known his master when he was the cadet of the house, therefore, he often gave him his Christian name)–“I knew what Mr. Edward would do; and I was certain he would not wait long neither: and he’s done right, for aught I know. I wish you joy, Miss!” and he politely pulled his forelock.

“Thank you, John. Mr. Rochester told me to give you and Mary this.” I put into his hand a five-pound note. Without waiting to hear more, I left the kitchen. In passing the door of that sanctum some time after, I caught the words –

“She’ll happen do better for him nor ony o’t’ grand ladies.” And again, “If she ben’t one o’ th’ handsomest, she’s noan faal and varry good-natured; and i’ his een she’s fair beautiful, onybody may see that.”

I wrote to Moor House and to Cambridge immediately, to say what I had done: fully explaining also why I had thus acted. Diana and Mary approved the step unreservedly. Diana announced that she would just give me time to get over the honeymoon, and then she would come and see me.

“She had better not wait till then, Jane,” said Mr. Rochester, when I read her letter to him; “if she does, she will be too late, for our honeymoon will shine our life long: its beams will only fade over your grave or mine.”

How St. John received the news, I don’t know: he never answered the letter in which I communicated it: yet six months after he wrote to me, without, however, mentioning Mr. Rochester’s name or alluding to my marriage. His letter was then calm, and, though very serious, kind. He has maintained a regular, though not frequent, correspondence ever since: he hopes I am happy, and trusts I am not of those who live without God in the world, and only mind earthly things.
teasing the reader
You have not quite forgotten little Adele, have you, reader?
I had not; I soon asked and obtained leave of Mr. Rochester, to go and see her at the school where he had placed her. Her frantic joy at beholding me again moved me much. She looked pale and thin: she said she was not happy. I found the rules of the establishment were too strict, its course of study too severe for a child of her age: I took her home with me. I meant to become her governess once more, but I soon found this impracticable; my time and cares were now required by another–my husband needed them all. So I sought out a school conducted on a more indulgent system, and near enough to permit of my visiting her often, and bringing her home sometimes. I took care she should never want for anything that could contribute to her comfort: she soon settled in her new abode, became very happy there, and made fair progress in her studies. As she grew up, a sound English education corrected in a great measure her French defects; and when she left school, I found in her a pleasing and obliging companion: docile, good-tempered, and well-principled. By her grateful attention to me and mine, she has long since well repaid any little kindness I ever had it in my power to offer her.
first ending: all’s-well-that-ends-well music or how the heath has its well-hidden enchantment and rewarding side in store
My tale draws to its close: one word respecting my experience of married life, and one brief glance at the fortunes of those whose names have most frequently recurred in this narrative, and I have done.

I have now been married ten years. I know what it is to live entirely for and with what I love best on earth. I hold myself supremely blest–blest beyond what language can express; because I am my husband’s life as fully is he is mine. No woman was ever nearer to her mate than I am: ever more absolutely bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh. I know no weariness of my Edward’s society: he knows none of mine, any more than we each do of the pulsation of the heart that beats in our separate bosoms; consequently, we are ever together. To be together is for us to be at once as free as in solitude, as gay as in company. We talk, I believe, all day long: to talk to each other is but a more animated and an audible thinking. All my confidence is bestowed on him, all his confidence is devoted to me; we are precisely suited in character–perfect concord is the result.

Mr. Rochester continued blind the first two years of our union; perhaps it was that circumstance that drew us so very near–that knit us so very close: for I was then his vision, as I am still his right hand. Literally, I was (what he often called me) the apple of his eye. He saw nature–he saw books through me; and never did I weary of gazing for his behalf, and of putting into words the effect of field, tree, town, river, cloud, sunbeam–of the landscape before us; of the weather round us–and impressing by sound on his ear what light could no longer stamp on his eye. Never did I weary of reading to him; never did I weary of conducting him where he wished to go: of doing for him what he wished to be done. And there was a pleasure in my services, most full, most exquisite, even though sad- -because he claimed these services without painful shame or damping humiliation. He loved me so truly, that he knew no reluctance in profiting by my attendance: he felt I loved him so fondly, that to yield that attendance was to indulge my sweetest wishes.

One morning at the end of the two years, as I was writing a letter to his dictation, he came and bent over me, and said–“Jane, have you a glittering ornament round your neck?”

I had a gold watch-chain: I answered “Yes.”

“And have you a pale blue dress on?”

I had. He informed me then, that for some time he had fancied the obscurity clouding one eye was becoming less dense; and that now he was sure of it.

He and I went up to London. He had the advice of an eminent oculist; and he eventually recovered the sight of that one eye. He cannot now see very distinctly: he cannot read or write much; but he can find his way without being led by the hand: the sky is no longer a blank to him–the earth no longer a void. When his first- born was put into his arms, he could see that the boy had inherited his own eyes, as they once were–large, brilliant, and black. On that occasion, he again, with a full heart, acknowledged that God had tempered judgment with mercy.

My Edward and I, then, are happy: and the more so, because those we most love are happy likewise. Diana and Mary Rivers are both married: alternately, once every year, they come to see us, and we go to see them. Diana’s husband is a captain in the navy, a gallant officer and a good man. Mary’s is a clergyman, a college friend of her brother’s, and, from his attainments and principles, worthy of the connection. Both Captain Fitzjames and Mr. Wharton love their wives, and are loved by them.
second ending: “See, reader, you are mistaken… do you think I am so foolish to make it so simple for you!”
As to St. John Rivers, he left England: he went to India. He entered on the path he had marked for himself; he pursues it still. A more resolute, indefatigable pioneer never wrought amidst rocks and dangers. Firm, faithful, and devoted, full of energy, and zeal, and truth, he labours for his race; he clears their painful way to improvement; he hews down like a giant the prejudices of creed and caste that encumber it. He may be stern; he may be exacting; he may be ambitious yet; but his is the sternness of the warrior Greatheart, who guards his pilgrim convoy from the onslaught of Apollyon. His is the exaction of the apostle, who speaks but for Christ, when he says–“Whosoever will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross and follow me.” His is the ambition of the high master-spirit, which aims to fill a place in the first rank of those who are redeemed from the earth–who stand without fault before the throne of God, who share the last mighty victories of the Lamb, who are called, and chosen, and faithful.

St. John is unmarried: he never will marry now.
Himself has hitherto sufficed to the toil, and the toil draws near its close: his glorious sun hastens to its setting. The last letter I received from him drew from my eves human tears, and yet filled my heart with divine joy: he anticipated his sure reward, his incorruptible crown. I know that a stranger’s hand will write to me next, to say that the good and faithful servant has been called at length into the joy of his Lord. And why weep for this? No fear of death will darken St. John’s last hour: his mind will be unclouded, his heart will be undaunted, his hope will be sure, his faith steadfast. His own words are a pledge of this –

“My Master,” he says, “has forewarned me. Daily He announces more distinctly,–‘Surely I come quickly!’ and hourly I more eagerly respond,–‘Amen; even so come, Lord Jesus!'” Book of Revelation (I Am Coming Quickly) may be attributed to the apostle John

Aren’t Saint John and Jane Eyre  the same person in a two-sided mirror?

What matters for Jane is her personal quest, the revelation of herself, her own path whatever crosses it!

From the outside her quest sounds  quixotic  with a lot of generosity and willingness to help but it  has a very original and unexpected twist:

Are we  to read a poor orphan’s story, her upbringing and success in society as governess+spouse+mother?

The story turns into one of the most powerful reversal of values and distractions, namely the final twist which makes readers
go back to the incipit and  meanderings of the story of a  heroine who is as elusive and fragile as the very word “air”.

Masterpiece with masters and servants are  left in the erring and airing spaces of the heath…without frontiers and boundaries.

The very status of the main character-cum-narrator  is that of a contemporary hobbo on
the path of recognition, on the go, on the run and not rational and fitting any framed type of explanations.

Is poetic justice achieved as  it  is more reliable than justice of the outer world?


June 2023