Tous les billets de la catégorie ‘Stage enseignants de DNL- Angleterre-Comenius’

Schools visit

lundi 6 avril 2009


lundi 6 avril 2009


lundi 6 avril 2009

Workshop on the Methodology of bilingual teaching (CLIL : Content Language Integrated Learning)

samedi 4 avril 2009


  • language mistake

  • science terminology (specific language)

  • how to use 2 languages

  • translation

  • pronunciation

  • materials

  • aims of bilingual programme ?

  • Warming up tasks ?

  • Policy of introduction

  • assessment


We must talk in World English and not England English (like a native speaker):it’s ENGLISH LINGUA FRANCA (ELF).

When we talk we use SPEAKING LANGUAGE (BICS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills )and not WRITING LANGUAGE ( CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) : a mistake in writing language is not a mistake in speaking language.

 Examples ELF and BICS:

  • non use of third person ‘s’

  • interchangeability of ‘who’ and ‘which’

  • omision and insertion of definite articles

  • use of all purpose question tag : no? Or isn’t it ?

  • Increasing redundancy with prepositions ? : can we discuss about ?

  • Reliance on verbs of high frequency ? : do , have , make , put , take .

  • Pluralisation of nouns : advices, informations

  • ‘that’ clauses instead of infinitive constructions : I want that we go home now.

  • Increasing explicitness: black colour.


Cummins, J (1984)”Bilingualism and special education :issues in assessment and pedagogy”. Clevedon , England. Multilingual Matters.

Edelsky, C (1990) “Whit literacy and justice for all : rethinking the social in language and education”. London The Falmer Press.

CALP Grammar needed (13 formula)

1. present passive+preposition and conjunctions :Volcanoes are formed by ….

2. past passive+prepositions and conjunctions: The treaty was signed on ….

3. gerund as noun : measuring an earthquake can be done in two ways OR mobilising the army took longer than the government had intended.

4. use of “would” as habitual and finished past: most children would work 60 hours a week in the mills.

5. use of ‘would’ as future intention :it was decided at the meeting that the city would be divided into four zones.

6. familiarity with ‘although’ :although they had promised to support the invasion…

7.while (contrastive not temporal) : while transport improved between 1750-1830, some problems remained…

8.familiarity with ‘time’ phrases: at this time, at the time, at that time, on time, in time, time after time …..

9. ease with anaphoric reference: a plant needs light to make food. So it responds to it by growing towards it. ?

10. all conditionals : why should you use fluoride toothpaste?What could happen if you didn’t use fluoride toothpaste?

11. understanding difference between fact an opinion: the battle should have been fought on three sides . The battle could have been fought on three sides.

12. past perfect simple : for some time Lenin had wanted to …

13. past perfect progressive (as factual/emotional comment) ?: the war had been raging for three years when …

 NB : in our course with pupils we can use 2 languages to work ; for example we can work on a text in a mother tongue with questions in English.


Different types of tasks

Jim Cummins has devised a model which helps categories tasks in both the Bilingual and Language classroom along a spectrum of difficulty.


A Context embedded

Cognitively undemanding (comprehensive question)



1. Match the picture to the heading sentence.

2. Look at the map and write in the chart where people from each country migrated in the 18th and 19th centuries.

3. Read the text and answer the questions: when, what, where….

C Context embedded

Cognitively demanding .(majority of tasks)


Example :

1. Use the information in Figure 2 to draw a pie chart to show the origin of migrant workers in Germany.

2. Make a sketch of a fjord landscape and label with words from the text.

B Context reduced

Cognitively undemanding (no visual support)



2. Read the text and answer the true/false questions.

3. Listen to the CD and fill the chart.

D Context reduced

Cognitively demanding



1. write an essay about…

2. make a list about ….

 In bilingual the majority of tasks should be cognitively demanding and context embedded © .Whit the context reduced pupil needs knowledge.

 Reading strategies


Pace Tasks

1. Write down key concepts.

2. Write what you remember

Medium (focus on information)

1. Pick out points you know/ you don’t know

2. Find opinion/fact

Slow (focusing on every word)

1. Underline everything you know (it’s better that underline the words you don’t know)

2. True/false questions

 Chunks and collocations

There are two or more words that often go together. There are two kinds of chunks or collocations :

general or specific to a topic .

 Examples of “general chunks”:

  • in the early nineteen century

  • the fast train / a quick shower

  • to argue among themselves

  • do your homework / make a mistake

 Different kinds of ways of learning

  • Linguistic/verbal / : an essay writing or doing word puzzles.

  • Visual : drawing pictures or responding to pictures.

  • Spatial : reading maps or playing chess.

  • Manipulative : making models .

  • Logical- Mathematical : making timetables or calculating .

  • Musical : playing an instrument or composing music.

  • Interpersonal : helping others learn or showing and telling.

  • Intrapersonal/Metacognitive : predicting what you will do well/badly or reviewing and evaluating.

  • Kinesthetic : sports or moving round classroom.

  • Experimental : finding out activities or workings things out.

 Types of thinking

  • comparing : the Normans were more killed than English.

  • Chronological order : after destroying the monasteries, Wolsey hanged the abbots.

  • Cause and effect : the Reformation caused unrest across England.

  • Classifying : the crocodile belongs to the reptile groups.

  • Evaluating : despite being a woman , Elizabeth 1 was a very strong monarch.

  • Generalizing : most people live in large cities.

  • Describing : rainforest are located in Africa, South America and South East Asia.

 Enquiry learning for CLIL.

Stage Strategies Skills used
1 Tuning in Brainstorming, asking questions, discussion, making drawings/diagrams. Questioning, organizing, sharing ideas, listening, talking, planning, predicting, estimating…
2 Finding out Visitors, outside visits, videos, research on the web , reading experiments. Observing, summarizing, asking questions, selecting, information, researching, reading, note taking, comparing …
3 Sorting out Classifying, grouping, sorting charts and graphs and sequencing narrative/process. Organizing, classifying, seeing, collaborating, presenting ideas, listening, reading, writing, drawing, reporting, testing, …
4 Reflecting Evaluation and assessment, learning journal, public display/publicity . Responding, speaking and writing clearly, performing, clarifying.


Synthesis of advice in bilingual teaching.

1. Start from the students (Diagnosing where my kits are) . What don’t you know about..? (Do not ask what they know) OR What would happen if…?Take a slow thinking quiet time… Collect the answers and write them on the blackboard in English

2. Provide three times as many visuals (Internet maps, charts, diagrams…)

3. Provide more variety of task type

4. Work in a greater variety of pace (speed).

5. Offer many more activities which require cognition and creativity instead of ‘learning’

6. Don’t be afraid of using their mother tongue during the lesson.

 7. Textbooks and visuals : when you are using a textbook, students are going to look at the pictures first. What is the purpose of the pictures? They have to teach something else besides the text. Look carefully at your pictures in the textbook and choose others on the Internet.

Written by Patricia Grondin   Teacher : Diana Hicks

Tags : , , , ,

Secondary education in England

mercredi 11 février 2009


A. Strands of historical development

  • English binary system:

  • Class (british position ): 7% of pupils study in a private school (30 000 euros a year registration fee in a private school)

  • Ability : for at 11 pupils pass an exam to go to Grammar School (there is only one grammar school in Cheltenham). If they don’t go in a grammar school they can go in a comprehensive school where all the children are welcome. Some of these Comprehensive Schools are trying to become Specialist Schools specialised in some subject because in that way they get better marks.

  • School is compulsory between 5 and 16.

  • The language is another problem : french is the second language they learn but they don’t get good marks at it.

  • The English school system is not homogeneous.

  • There is a test at every stage.


Key stage 1

Reception Year

4-5 years old

Base line assessment-reading, writing and communication.


Year 1




Year 2


Sats -in English and Mathematics (internally assessed )


Year 3




Year 4




Year 5




Year 6


Sats -in English and Science (externally marked )


Year 7




Year 8




Year 9


Sats -in English and Mathematics (internally assessed )


Year 10


CGSEs-in choice of subjetcs , courseworks submitted .


Year 11


CGSEs- in 8- 13 subjetcs , most will take English an Mathematic.

 Websites: office of standards in Education. :english official website with the curriculum

Http:// textbook


B. What are the requirements of the 21st Century?

  • Numbers of employment changes

  • Decentralization of the workforce, we need different kind of specialists

  • Parents/carers having to work and for longer (latchkey children : children who live in autonomy because parents work a lot )

  • Higher cost of living/housing

  • Consumer based materialistic society

  • Increased global travel

  • The importance of the e-learning

  • Personalized learning centers

Written by Patricia Grondin                Teacher : M. Abrahams (cheltenham’s course)

Ambiance à Cheltenham

vendredi 23 janvier 2009