VOCABULARY EXERCISES : Fill in the blanks with one of the words given in italics

1. threshers (batteuse) / throughout /  increase / sewer (égout) / home / crammed (entassé) / cholera rented / unhealthy (insalubre) / wages / paid / near / running / owners / mills

During the 1800s the Industrial Revolution spread ……………………….. Britain. The use of steam-powered machines, led to a massive increase in the number of factories (particularly in textile factories or …………………….). As the number of factories grew people from the countryside began to move into the towns looking for better …………………… work. The …………………. of a farm worker were very low and there were less jobs working on farms because of the invention and use of new machines such as ………………………… Also thousands of new workers were needed to work machines in mills and foundries and the factory ………………………. built houses for them. Cities filled to overflowing and London was particularly bad. At the start of the 19th Century about 1/5 of Britain’s population lived there, but by 1851 half the population of the country had set up ………………….. in London. London, like most cities, was not prepared for this great …………………….. in people. People crowded into already crowded houses. Rooms were …………………. to whole families or perhaps several families. If there was no rooms to rent, people stayed in lodging houses. The worker’s houses were usually ………………… to the factories so that people could walk to work. The houses were cheap, most had between 2-4 rooms. Victorian families were big with 4 or 5 children. There was no …………………… water or toilet. A whole street would have to share an outdoor pump and a couple of outside toilets. Most houses in the North of England were « back to backs » (built in double rows) with no windows at the front, no backyards and a ……………… down the middle of the street. Most of the houses were crowded with five or more people possibly …………………… into a single room. Even the cellars were full.  Most of the new towns were dirty and ……………………. The household rubbish was thrown out into the streets. Housing conditions like these were a perfect breeding grounds for diseases. More than 31,000 people died during an outbreak of ………………….. in 1832 and lots more were killed by typhus, smallpox (vérole) and dysentery.

2. hazardous / steam / improvements / cotton / orphans / ragged en guenilles) / slums / crushed / overseers (surveillants) / illegal / injuries / chimneys / earn / forbidding / overnight / housing / smoke

Chimneys, bridges and factory ………………… blocked out most of the light in the towns. This came from the factories that used ………………. to power their machines. The steam was made by burning coal to heat water. Burning coal produces a lot of dirty, black smoke. Gradually, …………………… for the poor were made. In 1848, Parliament passed laws that allowed city councils to clean up the streets. One of the first cities to become a healthier place was Birmingham. Proper sewers and drains were built. Streets were paved and lighting was put up. Over time …………….. were knocked down and new houses built. However, these changes did not take place ……………………. When slums were knocked down in 1875 few could afford new …………………….. Many factory workers were children. They worked long hours and were often treated badly by the supervisors or ……………………. Sometimes the children started work as young as four or five years old. A young child could not ………………. much, but even a few pence would be enough to buy food.  
The coal mines were dangerous places where roofs sometimes caved in, explosions happened and workers got all sorts of ………………. There were very few safety rules.  The Mines Act was passed by the Government in 1842 ……………………… the employment of women and girls and all boys under the age of teen down mines. Later it became ………………. for a boy under 12 to work down a mine. Thousands of other children worked in the ……………… mills. The mill owners often took in ……………….. to their workhouses, they lived at the mill and were worked as hard as possible. There were some serious accidents, some children were scalped when their hair was caught in the machine, hands were ……………… and some children were killed when they went to sleep and fell into the machine. Children often worked long and gruelling hours in factories and had to carry out some ……………………. jobs. Although in 1832 the use of boys for sweeping …………………. was forbidden by law, boys continued to be forced through the narrow winding passages in large houses. Hordes of dirty, ……………………… children roamed the streets with no regular money and no home to got to.