What was the religious situation in England when Henry VIII died ?

Henry VIII had broken with Rome and established himself as head of the Church of England. He had closed the monasteries and sold the lands that had belonged to the Church to noblemen and squires. About 560 monasteries were destroyed between 1536 and 1539. The first Bible in English was printed in 1535. During Henry VIII’s reign many people still believe in the main ideas of the Catholic church.

What is the common point between Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I ?

Henry VIII had three children but none of them had the same mother. Edward VI was Jane Seymour’s son, the mother of Mary I was Catherine of Aragon while Elizabeth’s mother was named Anne Boleyn.

What was the legacy of Edward VI’s reign ?

When Henry VIII died in 1547, Edward ascended to the throne but was only ten years’ old. Other people, called regents, governed on his behalf. His reign was quite short since he died in 1553. Under his reign England became more strongly Protestant. It was now perferctly legal to believe in Protestant ideas. Edward VI himself was a strong Protestant. There was a new Prayer Book in 1549, telling people how to pray and how they should worship. Idolatrous images were suppressed. His reign is also remembered for the plunder of parish churches. These attacks made the Reformation unpopular. People were growing hostile to the Reformation, all the more so as the government was reputedly corrupt.

Mary I was Queen from …..

1553 to 1558. When she was crowned she was very popular with the people of England. She had been brought up as a strict Roman Catholic. She was a devout Catholic. She possessed genuine religious convictions.

What changed during her reign ?

Mary completely reversed the changes brought by Edward VI. Her prime goal was to restore Catholicism. She was determined to bring back Roman Catholicism to England. Protestantism had only been the official religion for a few years so the change seemed rather simple. Under her reign all the priest had to be Catholic and the Catholic Mass was restored. The Pope was made the head of the church again.

Whom did she marry ?

She married Phillip II of Spain in 1554. The English disapproved of this union. This marriage was highly unpopular because most English people feared the power of Spain. People were afraid Philip might control England. The people had no wish to be governed by a foreigner and there were many racial tensions in London. Spain was the most dangerous commercial rival and a political enemy. The merchants resented Mary I’s marriage and predicted England would be subordinated to Spain.  This was an unhappy marriage and Mary died with no children.

Which city did the English lose in 1557 ?

Calais. Mary had joined Phillip in a war against France. Clais was England’s last possession in France. This failure made Mary even less popular.

Why was Queen Mary called ‘Bloody Mary’ ? 

Mary was extremely suspicious of others and believed Protestants were plotting against her. Some people refused to change their religious habits and convictions. In 1555 Parliament set an act of Heresy  laws that made it a crime to be a Protestant. All those who refused  to convert to Catholicism were burnt. Those who were hostile to the changes were burned at the stake. An estimated 300 people died this way. They were considered as heretics. Her nickname implies that she was hated throughout the country for the wholesale burnings of Protestants. The most prominent Protestant churchmen were persecuted, some of them managed to flee but many died.

Who were the major European figures of the Counter Reformation ?

There were some reformers in Rome, a society of priests called the Oratory of Divine Love but they received some helped from abroad. In England Thomas More, Erasmus or St John Fisher wanted to reform the Catholic Church. New orders, like the Jesuits, led by St Ignatius of Loyola were founded. The Council of Trent was the central event of the Counter Reformation.

Which adjectives could describe Elizabeth ?

Elizabeth I is generally described as an intelligent person. She could speak Latin, French and German.

During the first decade of her reign, Elizabeth’s treatment of English Catholics was ……………

Moderate : Elizabeth tried to find a balance between the two religions, hoping to stop the problems that religion had caused in England. She tried to find some ‘middle way’.

What was Elizabeth I’s primary goal ?

Elizabeth wanted England to have peace and not to be divided over religion. Her first aim was political and religious stability. She created the Church of England that mixed both Protestant and Catholic ideas. In 1559  Elizabeth and her government imposed a Protestant religious settlement. The Anglican Church was a compromise to seduce Roman Catholics.

Was religion important for ordinary people in England ?

Religion was a vital component in the lives of the English people. The 16th and 17th centuries were religious ages. The bulk of the population remained catholic. Church attendance was part of the social bond between people. Sacraments were highly important in people’s minds.

As England was relatively poor Elizabeth supported ………………..

Elizabeth supported privateers, licensed pirates who pick off Sapnish treasure shipsand contributed part of their booty to the public purse.

The hostilities between England and Spain broke out in ………………

1585. It was actually a drift into war. Phillip II was admittedly hostile towards Elizabeth.

Why did Spain want to overthrow (renverser) England ? (3 reasons)

At the time Spain controlled the Spanish Netherlands but Protestant ideas had spread to Holland. Now Spain used a religious secret police called the Inquisition to hunt out Protestants. The English helped Dutch Protestants in Holland, which infuriated Phillip II, King of Spain. Therefore he wanted to have England under his control.

English pirates like Sir Francis Drake caused a great deal of damage to Spain’s trade in silver. Spain had lost a vast sum of money when Drake had sunk or captured cargos full of silver.

The king of Spain had one ally in the British isles. Mary, Queen of Scots, was a Catholic and she had made it clear that if she became queen of England Phillip II would inherit the throne. But Mary, Queen of Scots, was executed in 1587.

The Spanish Armada left Spain in ……………


The man behind the defeat of the Spanish Armada was ………………..

Sir Francis Drake became famous as a result of his association with the defeat of the Spanish Armada. In fact he symbolized or epitomized the glory of the Tudor period. He was born around 1540 in Devon. Little is known about him, some historians surmise that his father was a sailor and a preacher to naval sailors. By 1570 Drake owned his boat and had made a fortune. He set sail for his first voyage to the West Indies in 1570. He was even knighted. From 1577 to 1580 Drake sailed around the world. It was a real achievement. To the Spanish Drake was merely a pirate sinking cargos.

Which second most important event marked the reign of Queen Elizabeth ?

The death of Queen Mary of Scotland.

Which men of letters and thinkers lived during the Elizabethan period ?

The Elizabethan age in a golden age for the arts. There were many talented playwrights, namely William Shakespeare, Ben Johnson and Christopher Marlowe. Francis Bacon was a great thinker.

Robert Ascham, who is mentioned in the text, studied Greek in Cambridge. One of his pastimes was archery. He was Elizabeth I’s tutor. Then he left his post and travelled to Germany and Italy. In 1558 he was appointed secretary to Elizabeth. In 1563 he wrote a treatise on education.

Who were the humanists in England ?

The Great Dutch scholar, Erasmus, spent some time in England with one of his friends, Sir Thomas More. The humanists championed modern languages to make knowledge more available. Many new words were introduced at that time. The early humanists in England shared one point of view : that learning would make those who ruled more generous and fair. They considered that a sound literary education brought virtue. The rulers should learn history, philosophy, music, poetry and the visual arts.

Which company was founded in 1600 ?

The British East India Company.