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Basquiat a prolific painter

http://www.lemonde.fr/culture/portfolio/2010/05/26/les-peintures-rebelles-et-colorees-de-basquiat-s-exposent-a-bale_1349268_3246.html

Saint Patrick ‘s day is on March 17th

La laïcité à la manière des Lettres persannes

Critique de la laïcité à la française, à la manière des “Lettres persanes”, par Eric Fassin

LEMONDE | 25.05.10 | 14h10









Comment peut-on être français ? C’est un grand sujet de curiosité, pour un mahométan, que les moeurs et coutumes de ce pays. Ne crois pas cependant que j’en comprenne tous les ressorts : depuis que je suis arrivé à Paris, je n’ai eu que le temps de m’en étonner. Je songeai d’abord que la France était la fille aînée de l’Eglise, tant son roi aime à célébrer le manteau de clochers qui en recouvre les plaines et collines. Je me pris ensuite à penser que ce peuple répudiait toute religion, tant il s’inquiète des minarets qui pourraient un jour défigurer ses paysages laïques.

Un vieillard philosophe m’éclaira bientôt. “Notre loi interdit seulement de mêler l’Eglise à l’Etat, et l’Etat à l’Eglise.” J’applaudis la sagesse de ce peuple. “Dans votre pays, les fêtes religieuses sont donc privées, et non publiques comme chez nous ?
– C’est selon. Nous respectons le calendrier chrétien, par tradition, mais notre Etat ignore les fêtes juives ou mahométanes, par laïcité.”

Comme nous passions devant un édifice orné de croix, je l’interrogeai encore : “Cette école est pourtant chrétienne, et non laïque ?
– Les deux à la fois. Elle est tenue par des Pères, mais c’est l’Etat qui la finance. Notre roi a d’ailleurs proclamé la supériorité du prêtre sur le maître d’école. Prêter allégeance au pape est pour nous le signe d’une laïcité positive.”
Sache que, malgré l’usure du temps, ce monarque reste un grand magicien ; il exerce son empire sur l’esprit même de ses sujets. Il n’a qu’à leur persuader qu’un écu en vaut deux, et ils le croient.

Ma confusion était à son comble : “Qu’est-ce donc que votre laïcité ?” L’homme m’expliqua ce beau principe : “Nous sommes libres de moquer la religion : on peut rire de tout. Les caricatures de votre prophète publiées dans nos gazettes l’ont bien montré : nous nous montrons plus libres que vous.
– Vos lois ne connaissent donc pas le blasphème ?

– Des jeunes gens ont bien été condamnés pour avoir profané la grande église que vous voyez, en y mariant deux femmes ; c’est que leur parodie manquait de respect à notre sainte religion.”

J’admirai pourtant la liberté du peuple français : “Pour vous, il n’est rien de sacré ? – Rien, sinon le drapeau et l’hymne du pays, le roi, ses ministres et ses préfets, soit la nation et l’Etat. Tout est permis, poursuivit le vieil homme, à condition de respecter les vérités historiques établies par le législateur. Aussi ne faut-il pas trop critiquer le passé de ce peuple ni son présent. Liberté n’est point licence.”

“Pourtant, dis-je alors, vos femmes ont perdu toute retenue ; elles se présentent devant les hommes à visage découvert, et l’usage de se faire servir par des eunuques leur est inconnu.” Mon philosophe soupira : “C’est une grande question, parmi les hommes, de savoir s’il est plus désirable d’ôter aux femmes la liberté que de la leur laisser. Pour notre part, nous ne goûtons rien tant que la liberté des femmes.
– Vos épouses et vos filles sont donc libres de ne point porter de voile ?

– C’est tout le contraire : notre liberté leur interdit de se voiler le visage.

– Comment, votre police pourra-t-elle pénétrer jusque dans le sérail ?

– N’ayez crainte. Ces femmes seront enfin libres de rester enfermées. Le voile partiel des filles était déjà interdit à l’école : c’est qu’il s’agit d’un signe religieux. Le voile intégral des femmes pourra désormais être interdit dans tous les lieux publics : c’est qu’il n’a rien de religieux.”
“Ainsi, dis-je, nos femmes sont libres de sortir si elles revêtent le voile ; les vôtres, pour sortir, sont libres de l’ôter. Tu vois que j’ai pris le goût de ce pays-ci, où l’on aime à soutenir des opinions extraordinaires et à réduire tout en paradoxe.

“Ne vous méprenez pas, répondit mon docte professeur, nul ne demandera aux nonnes de ce pays de se montrer en cheveux ! Nous nous inquiétons moins de nos femmes que des vôtres. L’une d’entre elles demanda naguère à devenir française, comme l’étaient déjà son époux et ses enfants. Dans leur sagesse, nos juges refusèrent : c’est qu’un voile la couvrait tout entière.”

“Pour être libre dans la patrie de l’égalité des sexes, ne fallait-il pourtant pas qu’elle devînt l’égale en droit de son époux ?
– Détrompez-vous : l’égalité de droit n’entraîne pas l’égalité de fait. Les femmes sont libres d’égaler les hommes, mais seulement si elles le peuvent. Nous attachons trop de prix à nos principes pour nous embarrasser de la réalité. Il en va ainsi de l’inégale pauvreté entre les sexes : nous ne nous soucions guère d’y songer, même au moment de débattre des pensions accordées à nos aînés.

“En France, continuai-je, les femmes sont bien libres de se marier ?
– Oui, à condition d’épouser un homme.

– Les hommes sont libres d’en faire autant ?

– Oui, à condition d’épouser une femme.
– Ont-ils la liberté d’en épouser plusieurs ?
Non pas ! Ce serait contrevenir à l’égalité entre les sexes, qui, depuis toujours, ou peu s’en faut, a tant de charme pour nous. Pour s’être vanté de multiplier les femmes, un homme qui avait acquis la qualité de français est aujourd’hui menacé d’en être privé.
– Vos maris n’ont-ils qu’une épouse, ou bien faut-il être français de naissance pour en compter plusieurs ?

– La polygamie est interdite à tous.”

“A moins d‘être également pratiqué par les deux époux, l’adultère est donc pareillement réprimé ?
– Vous n’y pensez pas ! Ce serait contrevenir à la liberté, qui, depuis toujours, ou presque, nous est si chère !

– Il en va donc pour vous de la polygamie comme du voile : vous tolérez ce qui se cache, il suffit de n’en point tirer gloire.
Pour arborer plus d’une épouse, reconnut mon philosophe, il est vrai qu’il faut être un grand monarque, ou du moins un grand cuisinier.
– N’est-ce point confondre la vertu avec l’hypocrisie
, lui dis-je, pour finir, et réserver l’honnêteté au privilège ?”

A mesure que je découvre ce peuple, il m’apparaît moins étranger. Je vois partout ici le mahométisme, quoique je n’y trouve point Mahomet. Il faut professer la liberté, l’égalité et la laïcité pour être français ; et il faut être français pour s’en dispenser impunément.


Eric Fassin, sociologue, Ecole normale supérieure.

Our journey to … Unsere Reise nach Freiburg!

My journey, our journey in Freiburg…Unsere Reise nach Freiburg!

Culture, culture, Kultur and Europa!!!

Ganz gut! Ich mag dass gern!

1)Compréhension orale et expression orale:

BBC News – Annual ice swim draws big crowd in Berlin

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8450457.stm

2)Le Quartier Vauban de Fribourg-en-Brisgau, est le premier écoquartier du monde. Il a été construit en 1996 sur une base militaire française désaffectée (qui ne servait plus).

Kultur bitte sehr!

Villes jumelées… Twin towns…

I-Vocabulaire:

l’eau:

la terre:

la voiture:

le trésor:

le portable:

la facture:

le soleil:

mourir:

la lumière:

la fenêtre:

l’aventure:

das Handy, the light, das Abenteuer, the window, die Rechnung, das Wagen, the car, the earth, die Erde, water, das Wasser, sterben, to die, das Licht, die Fenster, the mobile phone, die Sonne, der Schatz, the treasure, the sun, the bill, adventure

Cela me plaît beaucoup!

Ich mag das gern. Ich mag das nicht. I like it a lot! It looks great and smashing!

I don’t think much of it! Awesome! Ganz schön!

Il y a beaucoup de maisons aux couleurs différentes!

Es gibt vielen Hausen mit verschiedenen Farben.

There are lots of houses with different colours.

All the houses have the same colour (GB) color (US)

III-Was bedeutet?: « Kinderspiele sind überall erlaubt »

Les enfants sont autorisés à jouer dans un espace restreint et délimité.

Les enfants sont autorisés à jouer dans tous les endroits.

Les enfants ne sont pas autorisés à jouer.

Children are allowed to play everywhere.

Chidren are not allowed to play anywhere.

Children are allowed to play in certain areas.

IV – Traduire

Nous partirons en bus:

Nous ferons des achats:

Nous verrons beaucoup de choses différentes:

Nous reviendrons fatigués mais heureux!

Nous serons fiers d’être européens!

Presidential speech on education Sept 9th 2009

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-10895928?ls

Obama’s favourite  food

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Hello, everyone — how’s everybody doing today?

I’m here with students at Wakefield High School in Arlington, Virginia. And we’ve got students tuning in from all across America, kindergarten through 12th grade. I’m glad you all could join us today.

I know that for many of you, today is the first day of school. And for those of you in kindergarten, or starting middle or high school, it’s your first day in a new school, so it’s understandable if you’re a little nervous. I imagine there are some seniors out there who are feeling pretty good right now, with just one more year to go. And no matter what grade you’re in, some of you are probably wishing it were still summer, and you could’ve stayed in bed just a little longer this morning.

I know that feeling. When I was young, my family lived in Indonesia for a few years, and my mother didn’t have the money to send me where all the American kids went to school. So she decided to teach me extra lessons herself, Monday through Friday — at 4:30 in the morning.

Now I wasn’t too happy about getting up that early. A lot of times, I’d fall asleep right there at the kitchen table. But whenever I’d complain, my mother would just give me one of those looks and say, “This is no picnic for me either, buster.”

So I know some of you are still adjusting to being back at school. But I’m here today because I have something important to discuss with you. I’m here because I want to talk with you about your education and what’s expected of all of you in this new school year.

Now I’ve given a lot of speeches about education. And I’ve talked a lot about responsibility.

I’ve talked about your teachers’ responsibility for inspiring you, and pushing you to learn.

I’ve talked about your parents’ responsibility for making sure you stay on track, and get your homework done, and don’t spend every waking hour in front of the TV or with that Xbox.

I’ve talked a lot about your government’s responsibility for setting high standards, supporting teachers and principals, and turning around schools that aren’t working where students aren’t getting the opportunities they deserve.

But at the end of the day, we can have the most dedicated teachers, the most supportive parents, and the best schools in the world and none of it will matter unless all of you fulfill your responsibilities. Unless you show up to those schools; pay attention to those teachers; listen to your parents, grandparents and other adults; and put in the hard work it takes to succeed.

And that’s what I want to focus on today: the responsibility each of you has for your education. I want to start with the responsibility you have to yourself.

Every single one of you has something you’re good at. Every single one of you has something to offer. And you have a responsibility to yourself to discover what that is. That’s the opportunity an education can provide.

Maybe you could be a good writer — maybe even good enough to write a book or articles in a newspaper — but you might not know it until you write a paper for your English class. Maybe you could be an innovator or an inventor — maybe even good enough to come up with the next iPhone or a new medicine or vaccine — but you might not know it until you do a project for your science class. Maybe you could be a mayor or a senator or a Supreme Court justice, but you might not know that until you join student government or the debate team.

And no matter what you want to do with your life — I guarantee that you’ll need an education to do it. You want to be a doctor, or a teacher, or a police officer? You want to be a nurse or an architect, a lawyer or a member of our military? You’re going to need a good education for every single one of those careers. You can’t drop out of school and just drop into a good job. You’ve got to work for it and train for it and learn for it.

And this isn’t just important for your own life and your own future. What you make of your education will decide nothing less than the future of this country. What you’re learning in school today will determine whether we as a nation can meet our greatest challenges in the future.

You’ll need the knowledge and problem-solving skills you learn in science and math to cure diseases like cancer and AIDS, and to develop new energy technologies and protect our environment. You’ll need the insights and critical thinking skills you gain in history and social studies to fight poverty and homelessness, crime and discrimination, and make our nation more fair and more free. You’ll need the creativity and ingenuity you develop in all your classes to build new companies that will create new jobs and boost our economy.

We need every single one of you to develop your talents, skills and intellect so you can help solve our most difficult problems. If you don’t do that — if you quit on school — you’re not just quitting on yourself, you’re quitting on your country.

Now I know it’s not always easy to do well in school. I know a lot of you have challenges in your lives right now that can make it hard to focus on your schoolwork.

I get it. I know what that’s like. My father left my family when I was two years old, and I was raised by a single mother who struggled at times to pay the bills and wasn’t always able to give us things the other kids had. There were times when I missed having a father in my life. There were times when I was lonely and felt like I didn’t fit in.

So I wasn’t always as focused as I should have been. I did some things I’m not proud of, and got in more trouble than I should have. And my life could have easily taken a turn for the worse.

But I was fortunate. I got a lot of second chances and had the opportunity to go to college, and law school, and follow my dreams. My wife, our first lady Michelle Obama, has a similar story. Neither of her parents had gone to college, and they didn’t have much. But they worked hard, and she worked hard, so that she could go to the best schools in this country.

Some of you might not have those advantages. Maybe you don’t have adults in your life who give you the support that you need. Maybe someone in your family has lost their job, and there’s not enough money to go around. Maybe you live in a neighborhood where you don’t feel safe, or have friends who are pressuring you to do things you know aren’t right.

But at the end of the day, the circumstances of your life — what you look like, where you come from, how much money you have, what you’ve got going on at home — that’s no excuse for neglecting your homework or having a bad attitude. That’s no excuse for talking back to your teacher, or cutting class, or dropping out of school. That’s no excuse for not trying.

Where you are right now doesn’t have to determine where you’ll end up. No one’s written your destiny for you. Here in America, you write your own destiny. You make your own future.

That’s what young people like you are doing every day, all across America.

Young people like Jazmin Perez, from Roma, Texas. Jazmin didn’t speak English when she first started school. Hardly anyone in her hometown went to college, and neither of her parents had gone either. But she worked hard, earned good grades, got a scholarship to Brown University, and is now in graduate school, studying public health, on her way to being Dr. Jazmin Perez.

I’m thinking about Andoni Schultz, from Los Altos, California, who’s fought brain cancer since he was three. He’s endured all sorts of treatments and surgeries, one of which affected his memory, so it took him much longer — hundreds of extra hours — to do his schoolwork. But he never fell behind, and he’s headed to college this fall.

And then there’s Shantell Steve, from my hometown of Chicago, Illinois. Even when bouncing from foster home to foster home in the toughest neighborhoods, she managed to get a job at a local health center; start a program to keep young people out of gangs; and she’s on track to graduate high school with honors and go on to college.

Jazmin, Andoni and Shantell aren’t any different from any of you. They faced challenges in their lives just like you do. But they refused to give up. They chose to take responsibility for their education and set goals for themselves. And I expect all of you to do the same. That’s why today, I’m calling on each of you to set your own goals for your education — and to do everything you can to meet them. Your goal can be something as simple as doing all your homework, paying attention in class, or spending time each day reading a book. Maybe you’ll decide to get involved in an extracurricular activity, or volunteer in your community. Maybe you’ll decide to stand up for kids who are being teased or bullied because of who they are or how they look, because you believe, like I do, that all kids deserve a safe environment to study and learn. Maybe you’ll decide to take better care of yourself so you can be more ready to learn. And along those lines, I hope you’ll all wash your hands a lot, and stay home from school when you don’t feel well, so we can keep people from getting the flu this fall and winter.

Whatever you resolve to do, I want you to commit to it. I want you to really work at it.

I know that sometimes, you get the sense from TV that you can be rich and successful without any hard work — that your ticket to success is through rapping or basketball or being a reality TV star, when chances are, you’re not going to be any of those things.

But the truth is, being successful is hard. You won’t love every subject you study. You won’t click with every teacher. Not every homework assignment will seem completely relevant to your life right this minute. And you won’t necessarily succeed at everything the first time you try.

That’s OK. Some of the most successful people in the world are the ones who’ve had the most failures. JK Rowling’s first Harry Potter book was rejected twelve times before it was finally published. Michael Jordan was cut from his high school basketball team, and he lost hundreds of games and missed thousands of shots during his career. But he once said, “I have failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.”

These people succeeded because they understand that you can’t let your failures define you — you have to let them teach you. You have to let them show you what to do differently next time. If you get in trouble, that doesn’t mean you’re a troublemaker, it means you need to try harder to behave. If you get a bad grade, that doesn’t mean you’re stupid, it just means you need to spend more time studying.

No one’s born being good at things, you become good at things through hard work. You’re not a varsity athlete the first time you play a new sport. You don’t hit every note the first time you sing a song. You’ve got to practice. It’s the same with your schoolwork. You might have to do a math problem a few times before you get it right, or read something a few times before you understand it, or do a few drafts of a paper before it’s good enough to hand in.

Don’t be afraid to ask questions. Don’t be afraid to ask for help when you need it. I do that every day. Asking for help isn’t a sign of weakness, it’s a sign of strength. It shows you have the courage to admit when you don’t know something, and to learn something new. So find an adult you trust — a parent, grandparent or teacher; a coach or counselor — and ask them to help you stay on track to meet your goals.

And even when you’re struggling, even when you’re discouraged, and you feel like other people have given up on you — don’t ever give up on yourself. Because when you give up on yourself, you give up on your country.

The story of America isn’t about people who quit when things got tough. It’s about people who kept going, who tried harder, who loved their country too much to do anything less than their best. It’s the story of students who sat where you sit 250 years ago, and went on to wage a revolution and found this nation. Students who sat where you sit 75 years ago who overcame a Depression and won a world war; who fought for civil rights and put a man on the moon. Students who sat where you sit 20 years ago who founded Google, Twitter and Facebook and changed the way we communicate with each other.

So today, I want to ask you, what’s your contribution going to be? What problems are you going to solve? What discoveries will you make? What will a president who comes here in twenty or fifty or one hundred years say about what all of you did for this country?

Your families, your teachers, and I are doing everything we can to make sure you have the education you need to answer these questions. I’m working hard to fix up your classrooms and get you the books, equipment and computers you need to learn. But you’ve got to do your part too. So I expect you to get serious this year. I expect you to put your best effort into everything you do. I expect great things from each of you. So don’t let us down — don’t let your family or your country or yourself down. Make us all proud. I know you can do it.

Thank you, God bless you, and God bless America.

I-Traduire en anglais:

N’abandonnez  jamais!:

Ne  vous laissez pas tomber!:

Ne nous laissez-pas tomber (ne nous abandonnez pas!)

les responsabilités des parents et des professeurs:

votre responsabilité:

Je veux un avenir meilleur:

Je veux former un nouveau gouvernement:

Je veux re-construire mon pays:

C’est au sujet  de l’éducation et de la discrimination à l’école.

De quoi ça parle?

II-Faire trois phrases interrogatives à partir de cet extrait du discours du Président américain:

“When I was young, my family lived in Indonesia for a few years, and my mother didn’t have the money to send me where all the American kids went to school. So she decided to teach me extra lessons herself, Monday through Friday — at 4:30 in the morning.

Now I wasn’t too happy about getting up that early. A lot of times, I’d fall asleep right there at the kitchen table. But whenever I’d complain, my mother would just give me one of those looks and say, “This is no picnic for me either, buster.” (buster:mon pote)


III-Mettre les phrases affirmatives qui suivent à la forme interrogative:

They  arrived at the airport.

David Cameron was elected Prime Minister by the Queen.

The American president delivered a speech in front of the students and pupils.

They  had a very good time during Whitsun (Pentecôte).

He is keen on learning languages.

She is a very talented pupil. (attention, la question sera plus générale et ne reprendra pas la forme exacte de départ)

The dogs and the cats are playing together.

We  had jam, toasts and butter, a fruit and cereals for breakfast this morning.

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