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Keep calm and carry on poster


e-thanks to Emmanuelle AntichCollège François Mitterand Moissac Académie de Toulouse

Raymond Aubrac, Jean Moulin and History




Raymond Aubrac with wife Lucie Bernard 

Jean Moulin

Jean Moulin
  • Son of a history professor
  • Rapidly ascended Civil Service to become France’s youngest prefect (regional administrator)
  • Extreme left-wing politics
  • Arrested in June 1940 by Gestapo and tortured
  • Dismissed by Vichy government for refusing to sack all elected officials with left-wing views
  • Smuggled out of France in 1941 to meet De Gaulle in London
  • Parachuted back to France in Jan 1942 to organise Resistance movement
  • Betrayed in June 1943, tortured and died





The King’s speech -under construction








Well, just one word, in fact five words: Just go and watch it!

Cinéma de l’Olympia de Pontarlier (vo) during your  February break!


The King’s Speech trailer script
ELIZABETH: My husband is er… Well, he’s required to speak publicly.
Bertie is frozen at the microphone. His neck and jaw muscles contract and quiver.
BERTIE “I have received.. er… K-k..”
LIONEL: Perhaps he should change jobs.
ELIZABETH: And what if my husband were the king?
(00:31) ELIZABETH: My husband has seen everyone!
SIR BLANDINE-BENTHAM: (places marbles onto Bertie’s palm.)
Insert them into your mouth!
(The doctor hands Bertie a book): Enunciate!
Bertie blanches, his neck muscles twitch and constrict. He is unable to do it.
LIONEL: He hasn’t seen me. I can cure your husband, but I need total trust.
LIONEL: What was your earliest memory?
(0:44) I … I’m not here to discuss … personal matters.
Lionel: Why are you here then?
BERTIE (exploding – stammer free): Because I bloody well stammer!
LIONEL: D’you know any jokes?
BERTIE: T- Timing isn’t my strong suit
LIONEL laughs.
ELIZABETH: Their methods were unorthodox and controversial
Bertie and Lionel both have their individual hands clasped and are shaking them,
vibrating their chest and loosening their jaw. As their jaws wobble, they emit a
vibrating sound.
BERTIE: Ahahahahhahahahahahahahahahahahah.
LIONEL (at the same time): Ahahahahahahahahahahahahahahaha
Bertie lies on the floor. Elizabeth sits gingerly on Bertie’s stomach.
(0:59) LIONEL: …inhale slowly…and…up comes your Royal Highness!
ELIZABETH: This is actually quite good fun!
Bertie, Elizabeth, Lionel stand framed by the open window.
Elizabeth holding a stop watch.
BERTIE: Aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa…
(1:05) LIONEL (coming out from behind a door) â€oeArt thou afeard?”
BERTIE (fascinated by a model plane): Because you’re peculiar.
LIONEL: I take that as a compliment.
WINSTON CHURCHILL: War with Germany will come, and we will need a King we can
all stand behind.
LIONEL: He’s afraid of his own shadow.
BERTIE: !the Nation believes when I sp-speak, I speak for them. But I cannot
LIONEL: You could do it! ! You need not be governed by fear.
(1:30) BERTIE: It’ll be like Mad King George the Stammerer.
Lionel sitting on the chair of Edward the Confessor.
BERTIE: Get up! You can’t sit there! Get up!
LIONEL: Why not? It’s a chair.
BERTIE: That- is! that is Saint Edward’s Chair-
LIONEL: People have carved their names on this chair!
BERTIE: Listen to me! Listen to me!
LIONEL: Why should I waste my time listening to you?
LIONEL (quietly): Yes, you do.
(1:45) BALDWIN: Your greatest test is yet to come.
Newsreel footage shows Hitler viewing troops doing the goose-step amidst immense
crowds. We then see Hitler’s mad eloquence, mesmerizing all.
LILIBET: What’s he saying, Papa?
BERTIE: I don’t know, but he seems to be saying it rather well.
LIONEL: Your first wartime speech.
BBC NEWS READER: Broadcast to the Nation and the World.
BALDWIN: This great time of crisis.
BERTIE: However this turns out, I don’t know how to thank you.
LIONEL (quietly): Bertie, you’re the bravest man I know.
ELIZABETH: I intend to be a very good Queen to a very great King.
LIONEL: Forget everything else and just say it to me.








B1- B2 The survival of Saint Paul’s Cathedral during the Blitz

29 December 2010 Last updated at 03:43 GMT

How did St Paul’s survive the Blitz?

St Paul's Cathedral amid the devastation
The scene after the air raids of 29 December 1940, 70 years ago

There was an unofficial lull in the Blitz attacks on London, for Christmas in 1940. But by 29 December, the German bomber planes had returned with renewed vigour. St Paul’s Cathedral famously survived, but how?

It became known as the Second Great Fire of London – the night 70 years ago that devastating air raids turned the capital into a conflagration.

Continue reading the main story

29 December 1940

St Paul's Cathedral wreathed in smoke
  • London’s 114th night of the Blitz
  • First bombs dropped at 1815 GMT, all-clear given just after midnight
  • Bombers gave up due to fog in the Channel

It had been a Christmas underground for many people, who slept in Underground stations or festively-decorated air raid shelters. For two nights, the bomber planes had not come, and the anti-aircraft guns remained silent.

That peculiar silence had already been broken as dusk fell on 29 December. The enemy aircraft had returned, dropping incendiary devices and parachute mines in many tens of thousands. Their target? The City of London.

By 1830 GMT on that cold Sunday evening, the Square Mile was in flames. Banks, offices, churches and homes were under threat, in the same streets burnt to a cinder in 1666. A US war reporter based in the city cabled his office: “The second Great Fire of London has ­begun.”

Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent word that St Paul’s Cathedral should be protected at all costs – it would boost morale to save Christopher Wren’s masterpiece.

But there was a hitch – a major one. Water was in short supply. The mains were being bombed, and although hoses could be filled from the nearby Thames, it was at an unusually low ebb – and unexploded bombs lay in the mud.

Nor was that the only threat to life and limb. Bombs, embers and debris rained down on the streets as they raced to battle the flames.

Continue reading the main story

Christmas in the Blitz

Girl asleep in decorated air raid shelter
  • Councils ran best-decorated shelter contests
  • Demand high for very short Christmas trees, to fit inside cramped and low-roofed shelters
  • Food was heavily rationed
  • Gift-giving discouraged, and people urged to give to the war effort instead

Fireman Sam Chauveau was on duty that night. “By the time we finished tackling the fires on the roof of the [Stock] Exchange, the sky, which was ebony black when we first got up there, was now changing to a yellowy orange colour. It looked like there was an enormous circle of fire, including St Paul’s churchyard.”

Bombs rained down on the cathedral. Volunteer firewatchers patrolled its myriad corridors, armed with sandbags and water pumps to douse the flames.

At about 2100 GMT, an incendiary device lodged on the roof, and the burning mercury inside began to melt the lead of the iconic dome. But luck was on the side of the firewatchers. The bomb dislodged, fell to the floor of the stone gallery, and was smothered with a sandbag.

St Paul’s was saved.

But many more buildings were lost. Tram lines and water mains were destroyed, and the streets strewn with rubble. A dozen firemen died that night, and 162 civilians also perished. Those who survived firefighting duties suffered burns, eye problems and smoke inhalation.

The story goes that Air Marshall Arthur “Bomber” Harris, surveying the damage, remarked, “Well, they’re sowing the wind.” It was under his lead that RAF Bomber Command wreaked firestorms upon German cities. Before a 1,000-plane raid on Cologne, he told the newsreel cameras: “Now they are going to reap the whirlwind.”

European anthem

Hymne à la joie. Hymne européen

Joie ! Joie ! Belle étincelle divine,
Fille de l’Elysée,
Nous entrons l’âme enivrée
Dans ton temple glorieux.
Ton magique attrait resserre
Ce que la mode en vain détruit ;
Tous les hommes deviennent frères
Où ton aile nous conduit.

Si le sort comblant ton âme,
D’un ami t’a fait l’ami,
Si tu as conquis l’amour d’une noble femme,
Mêle ton exultation à la nôtre!
Viens, même si tu n’aimas qu’une heure
Qu’un seul être sous les cieux !
Mais vous que nul amour n’effleure,
En pleurant, quittez ce choeur !

Tous les êtres boivent la joie,
En pressant le sein de la nature
Tous, bons et méchants,
Suivent les roses sur ses traces,
Elle nous donne baisers et vendanges,
Et nous offre l’ami à l’épreuve de la mort,
L’ivresse s’empare du vermisseau,
Et le chérubin apparaît devant Dieu.

tels les soleils qui volent
Dans le plan resplendissant des cieux,
Parcourez, frères, votre course,
Joyeux comme un héros volant à la victoire!

Qu’ils s’enlacent tous les êtres !
Ce baiser au monde entier !
Frères, au-dessus de la tente céleste
Doit régner un tendre père.
Vous prosternez-vous millions d’êtres ?
Pressens-tu ce créateur, Monde ?
Cherche-le au-dessus de la tente céleste,
Au-delà des étoiles il demeure nécessairement.

Texte Allemand

Freude, schöner Götterfunken
Tochter aus Elysium,
Wir betreten feuertrunken,
Himmlische, dein Heiligtum!
Deine Zauber binden wieder
Was die Mode streng geteilt;
Alle Menschen werden Brüder,
Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt.

Wem der große Wurf gelungen,
Eines Freundes Freund zu sein;
Wer ein holdes Weib errungen,
Mische seinen Jubel ein!
Ja, wer auch nur eine Seele
Sein nennt auf dem Erdenrund!
Und wer’s nie gekonnt, der stehle
Weinend sich aus diesem Bund!

Freude trinken alle Wesen
An den Brüsten der Natur;
Alle Guten, alle Bösen
Folgen ihrer Rosenspur.
Küsse gab sie uns und Reben,
Einen Freund, geprüft im Tod;
Wollust ward dem Wurm gegeben,
und der Cherub steht vor Gott.

wie seine Sonnen fliegen
Durch des Himmels prächt’gen Plan,
Laufet, Brüder, eure Bahn,
Freudig, wie ein Held zum Siegen.

Seid umschlungen, Millionen!
Diesen Kuß der ganzen Welt!
Brüder, über’m Sternenzelt
Muß ein lieber Vater wohnen.
Ihr stürzt nieder, Millionen?
Ahnest du den Schöpfer, Welt?
Such’ ihn über’m Sternenzelt!
Über Sternen muß er wohnen.


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