Rousseau Memory Project

Mémoire de Jean-Jacques Rousseau par le Club UNESCO Sorbonne 

Club UNESCO Sorbonne fête le 300ème anniversaire de Jean-Jacques Rousseau


Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) est un personnage majeur du siècle des Lumières : grand philosophe, penseur politique, écrivain, botaniste et musicien. Son œuvre a inspiré, nourri et bouleversé les esprits des hommes du dix-huitième siècle à nos jours. Son travail a été inscrit au registre Mémoire du monde de l’UNESCO.
Le Club UNESCO Sorbonne apporte sa modeste contribution à ce que nous n’oubliions pas ce géant qui a enrichi l’humanité.

L’UNESCO à propos de Rousseau ( :

« Patrimoine documentaire soumis par la Suisse et recommandé à l’inscription au Registre Mémoire du monde en 2011.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau est un des plus grands philosophes européens. Son influence est unique et se manifeste dans de nombreux domaines comme la pensée politique et philosophique, les relations de l’homme et de la nature, l’éducation des enfants. Son écriture en fait un des grands écrivains de son époque. Personnage majeur du Siècle des Lumières, il ouvre des perspectives nouvelles et importantes qui joueront un rôle considérable dans les bouleversements politiques et sociaux du dix-huitième siècle à aujourd’hui.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau est né citoyen genevois en 1712 et décédé citoyen neuchâtelois (mais à Ermenonville, chez le marquis de Girardin) en 1778. Sa vie agitée et partagée l’amène à passer d’un lieu à l’autre, sans véritables racines. Genève et Neuchâtel gardent toutefois dans son esprit une importance particulière même s’il a entretenu avec elles des relations parfois ambivalentes. Il y maintient des liens privilégiés avec certains personnages lesquels conserveront des fonds d’archives qui le concernent directement. »

Tesla’s poetry at the 6th International Poetry Festival in Paris


At the 20 arrondissement City Hall in Paris, UNESCO Clubs French Federation was represented by two persons : Claude Vielix, FFCU Vice-president and Aleksandar Protic FFCU Federal Counselor for the 6th International Poetry Festival in Paris. Claude Vielix talked about FFCU engagement and role in contemporary society, as well as in cultural activities. Aleksandar Protic informed the audience about the Tesla Memory Project and about Tesla’s scientific poetry. Both FFCU representatives met several poets came from all over the world to celebrate this Festival in Paris. Morii Kae read her poetry dedicated to peace and development in Fukushima. She offred to a FFCU a peace necklace, symbol from japaneese tradition. Aleksandar Protic in the name of UNESCO Club Sorbonne together with Morii Kae and Lana Rebecca March gathered to promote peace through poetry.

Tesla’s scientific poetry



Tesla wrote, in the late 1920s, a poem  Fragments of Olympian Gossip to his friend George Sylvester Viereck, (a well-known German poet and mystic) parodying some of what were called « the scientific establishment of the day ».



Fragments of Olympian Gossip 

While listening on my cosmic phone
I caught words from the Olympus blown.
A newcomer was shown around;
That much I could guess, aided by sound.
« There’s Archimedes with his lever
Still busy on problems as ever.
Says: matter and force are transmutable
And wrong the laws you thought immutable. »
« Below, on Earth, they work at full blast
And news are coming in thick and fast.
The latest tells of a cosmic gun.
To be pelted is very poor fun.
We are wary with so much at stake,
Those beggars are a pest—no mistake. »
« Too bad, Sir Isaac, they dimmed your renown
And turned your great science upside down.
Now a long haired crank, Einstein by name,
Puts on your high teaching all the blame.
Says: matter and force are transmutable
And wrong the laws you thought immutable. »
« I am much too ignorant, my son,
For grasping schemes so finely spun.
My followers are of stronger mind
And I am content to stay behind,
Perhaps I failed, but I did my best,
These masters of mine may do the rest.
Come, Kelvin, I have finished my cup.
When is your friend Tesla coming up. »
« Oh, quoth Kelvin, he is always late,
It would be useless to remonstrate. »
Then silence—shuffle of soft slippered feet—
I knock and—the bedlam of the street.

The oldest Balkan newspaper Politika about TESLA MEMORY PROJECT

The oldest Balkan newspaper Politika about TESLA MEMORY PROJECT presented in UNESCO Headquarters on 05/10/2012

The  objective of the TESLA Memory Project, initiated by Aleksandar Protic, president of UNESCO Club at Sorbonne University and the director of Intercultural Forum, is to increase awareness of UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register, global importance of science and life and work of Nikola Tesla.

Nikola Tesla, one of the world’s greatest scientists, is often considered as “The Man who invented the 20th century, now shaping the 21st century”. His impact on the modern world is enormous, products of his genius can be found in everyday life. Nikola Tesla exemplifies a unifying force and inspiration for all nations in the name of peace and science. He was an authentic visionary far ahead of his contemporaries in the field of scientific development. This is why UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register consideres Tesla’s inventions archives as a heritage of mankind.

Politika link to this article :

TESLA Project and Memory of the World Register : lecture at UNESCO by Aleksandar Protic

Aleksandar Protic, president of UNESCO Club at Sorbonne University, and Federal Counselor  at the French Federation of UNESCO Clubs, presented  TESLA MEMORY PROJECT at UNESCO Headquarters teaching about The Memory of the World Register. French Federation of UNESCO Clubs organized on October 5th 2012 a one-day specialized program « LEARN MORE ABOUT UNESCO » in UNESCO Headquarters .

Lectures were provided by FFCU-FEACU : Aleksandar Protic (FFCU) Danièle Seigneuric (FFCU) and Lionel Vinour (FEACU) ; and UNESCO officers : Ana Dumitrescu (Culture), Cecilia Golden (MOST), Christine Morel Vasquez (DOC), Sylvie Cochet (DOCEdu).

The  objective of the TESLA Memory Project, initiated by Aleksandar Protic, president of UNESCO Club at Sorbonne University and the director of Intercultural Forum, is to increase awareness of UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register, global importance of science and life and work of Nikola Tesla.

Nikola Tesla, one of the world’s greatest scientists, is often considered as “The Man who invented the 20th century, now shaping the 21st century”. His impact on the modern world is enormous, products of his genius can be found in everyday life. Nikola Tesla exemplifies a unifying force and inspiration for all nations in the name of peace and science. He was an authentic visionary far ahead of his contemporaries in the field of scientific development. This is why UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register consideres Tesla’s inventions archives as a heritage of mankind.

Projet TESLA à l’ UNESCO pour célébrer la Journée mondiale de l’Enseignant



réalisée par la









Matin :  UNESCO  1 rue Miollis 75015 Paris

Accueil à partir de 9h

9h30 à 10h30 : Ouverture et présentation générale de l’UNESCO : historique, structure, rôle normatif par Danièle Seigneuric (FFCU) et Lionel Vinour (FEACU)

10h30 à 11h15 : Secteur Culture avec Anna Dumitrescu (UNESCO CLT)

11h15 à 12h : Programme MOST avec Cecilia Golden

12h-13h15 : Projet TESLA – Mémoire du Monde avec Aleksandar Protic (FFCU)


Après – midi : UNESCO  7 place de Fontenoy 75015 Paris

13h15 à 14h30 : repas

15h à 15h30 : visite guidée

15h30 à 16h : Centre de documentation avec Christine Morel Vasquez (UNESCO)

16h à 17h : Présentation des ressources pédagogiques au Centre de documentation Education avec Sylvie Cochet (UNESCO)

17h à 17h30 : Bilan et suggestions


UNESCO Club Sorbonne celebrated World Teachers’ Day 2012


UNESCO Club Sorbonne celebrated World Teachers’ Day 2012 at UNESCO Headquarters on 3/10/2012

UNESCO is celebrating World Teachers’ Day along with its partners every year.



« On this day, we call for teachers to receive supportive environments, adequate quality training as well as ‘safeguards’ for teachers’ rights and responsibilities…

We expect a lot from teachers – they, in turn, are right to expect as much from us. This World Teachers’ Day is an opportunity for all to take a stand. »

Irina Bokova, UNESCO Director-General


President Obama about Nikola Tesla as inventor who helped make America what it is


Obama’s Immigration Speech at the American University School of International Service, Washington D.C. on July 1, 2010.

President Barack Obama gave his first speech devoted to laying out his case for an overhaul of immigration laws since he became president.

Here is the official transcript released by the White House:

July 1, 2010
American University School of International Service
Washington, D.C.
11:12 A.M. EDT


« Thank you very much. Thank you. Thank you. (Applause.) Everyone please have a seat. Thank you very much. Let me thank Pastor Hybels from near my hometown in Chicago, who took time off his vacation to be here today. We are blessed to have him.

I want to thank President Neil Kerwin and our hosts here at American University; acknowledge my outstanding Secretary of Labor, Hilda Solis, and members of my administration; all the members of Congress — Hilda deserves applause. (Applause.) To all the members of Congress, the elected officials, faith and law enforcement, labor, business leaders and immigration advocates who are here today — thank you for your presence.

I want to thank American University for welcoming me to the campus once again. Some may recall that the last time I was here I was joined by a dear friend, and a giant of American politics, Senator Edward Kennedy. (Applause.) Teddy’s not here right now, but his legacy of civil rights and health care and worker protections is still with us.

I was a candidate for President that day, and some may recall I argued that our country had reached a tipping point; that after years in which we had deferred our most pressing problems, and too often yielded to the politics of the moment, we now faced a choice: We could squarely confront our challenges with honesty and determination, or we could consign ourselves and our children to a future less prosperous and less secure.

I believed that then and I believe it now. And that’s why, even as we’ve tackled the most severe economic crisis since the Great Depression, even as we’ve wound down the war in Iraq and refocused our efforts in Afghanistan, my administration has refused to ignore some of the fundamental challenges facing this generation.

We launched the most aggressive education reforms in decades, so that our children can gain the knowledge and skills they need to compete in a 21st century global economy.

We have finally delivered on the promise of health reform -– reform that will bring greater security to every American, and that will rein in the skyrocketing costs that threaten families, businesses and the prosperity of our nation.

We’re on the verge of reforming an outdated and ineffective set of rules governing Wall Street -– to give greater power to consumers and prevent the reckless financial speculation that led to this severe recession.

And we’re accelerating the transition to a clean energy economy by significantly raising the fuel-efficiency standards of cars and trucks, and by doubling our use of renewable energies like wind and solar power — steps that have the potential to create whole new industries and hundreds of thousands of new jobs in America.

So, despite the forces of the status quo, despite the polarization and the frequent pettiness of our politics, we are confronting the great challenges of our times. And while this work isn’t easy, and the changes we seek won’t always happen overnight, what we’ve made clear is that this administration will not just kick the can down the road.

Immigration reform is no exception. In recent days, the issue of immigration has become once more a source of fresh contention in our country, with the passage of a controversial law in Arizona and the heated reactions we’ve seen across America. Some have rallied behind this new policy. Others have protested and launched boycotts of the state. And everywhere, people have expressed frustration with a system that seems fundamentally broken.

Of course, the tensions around immigration are not new. On the one hand, we’ve always defined ourselves as a nation of immigrants — a nation that welcomes those willing to embrace America’s precepts.

Indeed, it is this constant flow of immigrants that helped to make America what it is. The scientific breakthroughs of Albert Einstein, the inventions of Nikola Tesla, the great ventures of Andrew Carnegie’s U.S. Steel and Sergey Brin’s Google, Inc. – all this was possible because of immigrants… »

Speech can be found at the Washington Wire (click here for full speech transcript):



The Extraordinary Inventions of Nikola Tesla course at Brown University

 Brown University website :

« Much is speculated and little is known about one of the most brilliant inventors at the turn of the century, Nikola Tesla. With more than 1000 patented inventions, Tesla laid the foundations of modern society as well as a solid ground for this course. Students will be introduced to the theory of electricity and magnetism and its applications, the principles of wireless transmission of signals and the idea of harvesting energy from natural sources.

Tesla’s inventions, that endowed the human race, include the invention of a rotational magnetic field that found the application in the first alternating current power plant at Niagara Falls. Increasing the frequency of alternating current lead to the first remote controlled boat in 19th century and the invention of radio, but the dream that never got materialized was wireless transmission of energy. Tesla’s ideas are current more so today, with the world striving for renewable sources. In this class we will introduce the basic physics concepts pertaining to the subject of electricity and magnetism, both on the blackboard and via ‘how stuff works’ experiments. This course will serve as a foundation to any rising physicist or engineer ready to embark on a path to a magical world of inventions and applications of new technologies.

In this course we will engage students into demystifying in-class-demos, as well as provide them with hands-on experience and physical intuition arising from it. Furthermore, students will be encouraged to take their newly acquired knowledge to another level and imagine different ways of making the same phenomenon work and finding its place in everyday life. This course is intended to elaborate on both the scientific and historic significance of his inventions and introduce students to his way of thinking about things. Tesla energized a wave of invention during the late 19th and early 20th century and continues to inspire engineers today. For example, even Apple is in the process of creating technology that would allow wireless charging of its devices. »

UNESCO Club Sorbonne celebrated World Peace Day at UNESCO

Vendredi 21 septembre 2012 au Palais de l’UNESCO


             Fédération Malienne et Fédération française des Clubs UNESCO


9h 30 : Paroles de bienvenue, par Monsieur Genc  SEITI, Directeur de la Division des Relations extérieures


9h 40 : « Le sens de cette journée solidaire » : Monsieur Yves LOPEZ, Président de la Fédération Française des Clubs UNESCO


9h 50 : « Le Mali à l’heure des tourmentes », vision de la Fédération malienne : Messieurs Yacouba BERTHE, Président, et Mamadou DIARRA, Président honoraire, de la Fédération malienne des Clubs UNESCO,


10h 30 : Témoignage du Club UNESCO « Terre Bleue » par Madame Ghislaine DITCHEV-COMPEYRON, Présidente


10h 50 : Pause café


11h : Intervention de Madame Lalla Aïcha BEN BARKA, Sous-Directrice Générale du Département Afrique de l’UNESCO


11h 30 : « Menaces patrimoniales, sociales et culturelles » Lazare ELOUNDOU, Chef de l’Unité Afrique du Centre du Patrimoine Mondial de l’UNESCO


11h 50 : « Crise malienne : état des lieux et perspectives » Par Monsieur Issa DIAWARA, Professeur à l’IUT de Dijon et membre de l’Association Malienne de Dijon.


12h 15  à 13h 15  : Débat général avec les participants


13h 30 à 14h30 : Pause déjeuner au restaurant de l’UNESCO


14h30 à 16h30 : ateliers

Trois questions :

  • Les acteurs de la solidarité
  • Les domaines de la solidarité
  • Les instruments, moyens et démarches de la solidarité


L’animation et la restitution en séance plénière des travaux des ateliers seront assurées par les représentants des associations partenaires de la Journée (cf. Liste des Organisations participantes).


16h30 : Restitution en plénière


17h 15 : Clôture de la journée : « Quelles orientations solidaires ? »


Organisations participantes à la Journée « SOLIDARITE MALI » :


  1. La Fédération Malienne des Associations et Clubs UNESCO (FMACU)
  2. La Fédération Française des Clubs UNESCO (FFCU)
  3. Le Club UNESCO Terre Bleue-Paris
  4. Le Club UNESCO du CFA Pommerit-Jaudy
  5. Le Club UNESCO du Lycée le Castel-Dijon
  6. Le Club UNESCO de La Rochelle
  7. Le Club UNESCO de la Sorbonne-Paris
  8. La Plate Forme Panafricaine (LPP)
  9. La Section Française du Mouvement Burkinabè des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuples (MBDHP-SF)
  10. L’Alliance Patriotique pour la Souveraineté du Mali (ASPM)
  11. L’Association Les Générations Libres
  12. L’Association Bâtir et Développer
  13. Le Comité International Joseph KI ZERBO (CIJK)
  14. L’Association des Étudiants Burkinabè en France (AEBF)
  15. L’Association Malienne de Dijon
  16. Conseil des Mariannes de la République
  17. ADESAF : Association pour le développement économique et social en Afrique francophone
  18. Association « Coup de pouce pour les enfants de Daga »
  19. OncoMali : Coopération Médicale contre le cancer au Mali et en Afrique
  20. Aliam : Alliance des Ligues francophones africaines et méditerranéennes contre le cancer
  21. Ligue nationale contre le cancer
  22. Association Mission Bulgarie (Paris-Sofia)
  23. FNC Mali : Front du non à la nouvelle Constitution du mali
  24. AMSCID Association Malienne de Solidarité et de coopération pour le développement du Mali
  25. Coopération Vitry-Mali




Célébration de la Journée de l’Enfant Africain à l’UNESCO

Célébration de la Journée de l’Enfant Africain à l’UNESCO


Le 15 juin 2012, le Club UNESCO Sorbonne a participé à la Célébration de la Journée de l’Enfant Africain au siège de l’UNESCO. La Fédération Française des Clubs UNESCO (FFCU) et l’association – Club UNESCO Congo Action (œuvrant pour le développement de l’éducation et de la formation des jeunes en RDC) qui ont accueilli pour cette journée les élèves des établissements parisiens.

L’objectif de cette journée était de sensibiliser les élèves  aux actions de solidarité internationale à travers l’éducation, la santé et le partage des  ressources naturelles.

La matinée s’est ouverte par une présentation de Mme Florence Migeon, du département « Education de base »  à l’UNESCO. Ensuite, les élèves ont pris part aux différentes activités.

Activités animées par Congo Action et Starting-Block : jeu de rôle au cours duquel tous les élèves deviennent les habitants d’un village d’Afrique.Ils adoptent des prénoms et des tenues africaines et sont reçus par les anciens du village qui leur expliquent les problèmes que rencontre la communauté concernant l’éducation, la santé, l‘alimentation et le respect des traditions.  A la fin du parcours, les jeunes du village doivent s’engager pour une des causes présentées.

Activités animées par l’association E-graine :  « Le goutte à goutte » : ce jeu contribue à une meilleure compréhension des enjeux de  l’eau au niveau international. L’animation a permis aux  élèves d’ une part d’étudier les étapes de  la construction d’un puits en Haïti mais aussi d’appréhender  les questions sur la  répartition de la consommation d’eau au sein d’une habitation en France.

Au cours de  l’après-midi, les élèves du collège Max Dormoy nous ont présenté le projet de micro-entreprise qu’ils ont réalisé cette année avec leur professeur d’histoire géographie sous forme d’un conseil d’administration où chacun a joué son rôle, du PDG au responsable de la communication.

Cette  journée restera mémorable pour tous. Elle a permis aux élèves,  impressionnés par le prestige des  locaux, de comprendre toute  l’étendue de  la mission de  l’UNESCO et  l’utilité de son engagement.

Artiste plasticienne et dessinatrice Christine Hallo a considérablement contribué au programme créant un tableau de support de jeu et aidant tout au long  de la journée.


Club UNESCO Sorbonne rencontre Christine Hallo

Célébration de la Journée de l’Enfant Africain

* * *

* * *

Lors de la Célébration de la Journée de l’Enfant Africain 2012 au siège de l’UNESCO,

le Club UNESCO Sorbonne a rencontré Christine Hallo, une artiste d’exception.

 * * *


« J’aime porter mon regard d’artiste voyageuse sur les femmes africaines de Belleville, qui marchent lentement avec leur bébé dans le dos, comme si elles avaient encore sous leurs pieds un peu de terre rouge de là bas.

Me laisser émerveiller, transporter en Afrique par les tenues de reines de ces mères, basins riches, wax et voiles colorés, par la beauté unique de ces pagnes brodés main qui  enserrent bébé, nacelles sûres, écrins de couleurs, et par l’abandon paisible de ces enfants, bercés par le pas de leur mère dans le brouhaha de la rue. »



 « Je dessine principalement de mémoire, et si j’accorde toute mon attention à restituer au plus près les motifs des pagnes, ainsi qu’à noter scrupuleusement la date et le lieu  de chaque « rencontre », pour ce qui concerne la représentation de ces mamans et de ces bébés, ce qui m’importe est de témoigner de l’émotion d’un moment de vie à travers une image archétypale, ou aucun visage n’est reconnaissable.

Parfois, cependant,  quand les tissus sont trop complexes pour être mémorisés, ou simplement trop beaux, je ne résiste pas à la tentation de prendre une photo très gros plan sur le motif qui me fascine.  C’est aussi l’occasion pour glaner par la suite des informations sur les origines de tel et tel motif, et sur les techniques d’ornements des pagnes de bébé :

Broderies, crochet, mais aussi, plus rares dans les rues de Paris, les teintures  sur basin, créées par réserves : nouées, ou cousues et pliées, ou encore brodées* ( * les « aiguilles sarakolé » ou soninké,  demandant plusieurs semaines de travail , car après la teinture il faut  retirer tous les fils de la broderie). Autant les pagnes brodés, ou ornés d’applications au crochet sont souvent l’ouvrage de la maman elle même ou de femmes de la famille, qui les offrent à la jeune mariée pour son trousseau, ou pour la naissance de son 1er bébé*, autant les pagnes teints par réserves sont  réalisés par des professionnel(le)s. »

*Dans la tradition de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Une grande partie des femmes africaines que je croise dans Paris, attachées encore aux tenues et pagnes traditionnels,  vient du Mali, du Niger, du Sénégal…

 Christine Hallo    Mai 2012



Jan Jonson’s exquisite performance at Sorbonne University in Paris


Jan Jonson, extraordinary actor and production director performed before professors and students of Sorbonne University in Paris (Centre Malesherbes) on 10.04.2012, presenting like mosaic several parts of his generous work of Waiting for Godot at San Quentin.

Beckett’s play found its truly meaning in the souls of incarcerated persons via performing arts which inspired particularly their intellectual curiosity empower their personal development, and enable to share an experience of self-recognition. But beyond these pedagogical, therapeutic and artistic aspects of theatre-in-prison, the experience Jan Jonson brought to prisoners was an experience of living and feeling free. Jonson’s astonishing performance connected the audience with the reality of life in prison and provoked some deepest emotions, which audience mostly didn’t hide.

Jan Jonson was invited to give lecture-performance at Sorbonne by Marketa Theinhardt, director of Intercultural studies CIMER. As recognition of his important and devoted work, Jan Jonson was named Cross-Cultural Ambassador of UNESCO Club Sorbonne and he received the formal recognition in the Headquarters of French Federation for UNESCO Clubs.

Jan Jonson’s BIO :

Born: In 1947 November the 27th in Malmö Sweden. Grown up in Gothenburg Sweden.
1961  » Barefoot, dressed in a transparent shirt with long sleeves and a pair of pale trousers
which ended right underneath my knees, I stood at the age of fourteen behind the scenes at Folkteaterin Gotheburg, Sweden, warming myself under a stage light, and watched the actors who performed the roles of  Vladimir and estragon in Samuel Beckett´s  Waiting for Godot. I performed the role of  A Boy twice per night, in the end of the first and second act, and informed in one breath Mr. Godot told me to tell you he won´t come this evening but surely tomorrow. With time it became a ritual hiding behind the scenes under the warm light, from the curtain went up until it came down again. I wanted to listen to their feelings, follow the story and feel the temperature on the stage, before I carefully entered to leave my message. Something was ignited inside me. »

1968-1971: The Academy of Dramatic Art at The Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm Sweden.
1971-1980: Actor at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm Sweden.

Performed in Shakespeare – Strindberg – Ibsen – Brecht – Goldoni –  Commedia del Arté and modern drama.

Between 1972 and 1973 Jan Jonson was an « Observer » at the « Old Vic » The National Theatre in London England.

1980 Freelance Actor and Director

1985 – 1986: Directed Samuel Becketts play « Waiting for Godot » at the Kumla Maximum security prison in Sweden.

1987 – 1988: Directed the same play at San Quentin State Prison in California USA.
This two productions was in a close cooperation with Samuel Beckett himself, during the five years until his death.

1994 – Published a book « Moments of Reality » which is Jan Jonsons own story of the theatre productions that changed his life, and of his meetings with Samuel Beckett in Paris. This book is about desperate and isolated people´s fight for a human   dignity, and a language of expression and about the love of this   absurd piece of theatre, which in the mouth of a prisoner becomes a realistic drama – the captive´s moments of reality. Published in two editions, 1994 by Wahlström & Widstrand Stockholm   Sweden and 2004 by Jan Jonson.

2000 – 2001: Directed the stage production of Federico Garcia Lorcas « The house of Bernarda Alba » at Department of Correction and Rehabilitation at Hinseberg Frövi a maximum security prison for women in Sweden.

2002 – 2003: Directed Samuel Becketts play « Endgame » at Department  of Correction and Rehabilitation at « ILA » maximum security prison in Oslo Norway.

2007 – 2008: Directed Samuel Becketts play « Happy Days » at  Department of Correction and Rehabilitation at   Sagsjö  maximum  security prison for women in Lindome Sweden.

In all this productions Jan Jonson has been working with inmates as actors. The audience has been exists of other inmates, staff people, family members to the actors, universities, and invited people from outside. Since 1989 has Jan Jonson performed a stage performance (A monologue) which is based on his book « Moments of Reality », in theatres, universities and prisons all over Europe, United States, Russia, Belarus and Estonia. RADIO PRODUCTIONS: 2000 and 2009 « Moments of Reality » As a radio Theatre, with music by Bob Dylan Produced by the Swedish Radio Theatre Stockholm Sweden.

Published as a double CD with booklets. Home Boys TV Documentary by Björn Carlgren
Produced By Björn Carlgren and SVT Stockholm Sweden 1989.

A documentary about Donald  Twin  James and Reginald Happy  Wilson  after the work with Waiting for Godot at Department of Corrections  and Rehabilitations at  San Quentin  State Prison.

1985 – 1986: « Godot in Jail » A film documentary of the film director  and poet Jösta Hagelbäck, this documentary is about Jan Jonsons work  of directing and performing Samuel Becketts play « Waiting for Godot »  (the first act) at Kumla maximum security prison in Sweden.

Production by « Måsen Film » Stockholm Sweden. 1988:  « Waiting for Godot » at San Quentin – a work in progress

Documentary film by John Reilly

Produced by Global Village in New York USA.

2006: « Prisonners de Beckett » A film documentary about the hole works   with « Waiting for Godot » at Kumla maximum security prison in Sweden. Directed by Michka Saal. Music by Bob Dylan.
Produced by Jacques Debs and Delphine Morel at ADR Production in   Paris France. This film has been invited to following festivals: Marseille,  Lisbonne, Tybingen, Nouveau Cinema, Montreal Rencontres du  Documentaire, Contemporian, Festival of Creteil, Cinema du Reel,  Centre Beaubourg, Paris 2007. Awards for this film: Selected for Pri Europa, Berlin.
Nominated for Gemini Awards: Best writing and best producing in a   documentary; Toronto Canada. Festival De Cannes 2007 Selection ACID.

2006: « Ansikt til Ansikt » – « Face to face » An interview documentary by the Photografer Morten Krogvold. This film is about why and how Jan Jonson is working with people in darkness.
Produced by Fabelaktiv AS Oslo Norway. Dozens of news summary from television, radio and newspaper in Sweden, Norway, France, Russia, Belarus, Estonia, San Francisco California.
From CNN in California and Global Village in New York.


2006: « Beckett Remembering – Remembering Beckett » Uncollected Interviews with Samuel Beckett, And Memories Of Those Who Knew Him. By James and Elisabeth Knowlson. Published: by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, London England 2006.

2006:  Was Herr Godot mir gesagt hat  Begegnung mit Samuel Beckett. Von Jan Jonson.
Published by Suhrkamp Verlag Insel Verlag Frankfurt am Main Germany
Published only in Germany.

1994: « Directing Beckett » Inteviews with and essays by twenty-two prominent directors of Samuel Becketts work. By Lois Oppenheim. Published by The University of Michigan Press.
1989: From The Royal Swedish Academy: Artistic Culture Award.

2011: Winner of the  Terra Incognita Theatre Festival  at   Interior Theatre in Sankt Petersburg Russia   – To Jan Jonson In the   Nomination The Discovery Of  The Director  for the Unique Concept Of An Artistic Project  Moments of Reality

Produced by Elena Nordström NGO  N-Studio Stockholm Sweden. Project  Theatre in Prison

“The tears of the world are constant quantity For each one who begins to weep, somewhere else another stops The same is true of  the laugh Let us not then speak ill of our generation, It is not any unhappier than its predecessors Let us not speak well of it either. Let us not speak of it at all.”

From Samuel Becketts  « Waiting for Godot »


Club UNESCO Sorbonne (dont  membres au sein du ACCESSACCESS organisent une exposition d’exception)

vous y invite vivement :

AccessAccess ART ET CULTURE ACCESSIBLES a l’immense plaisir de vous convier à sa seconde exposition à Paris.

Nous exposons 3 de nos artistes pendant 2 semaines avec 3 accrochages différents !


Sylvie Quémener revient cette année en présentant de nouvelles œuvres de 2011 et de 2012. De nouvelles formes, des volumes et des couleurs qu’elle a pris le soin de réinventer au sein de son œuvre vous attendent sur les murs de la galerie le Cerisier, où elle montre la femme, le rêve, la danse, des rencontres…multiples !

Denny expose pour la première fois sa seconde phase du métaréalisme déclinée en peinture. Pour autant l’artiste n’en est pas à sa première exposition ! Depuis près de 40 ans il a forgé son pinceau qu’il ne cesse de tremper dans le monde qui l’entoure. Il nous a fait confiance parce que nous avons la même idée de l’art et du rôle de l’artiste!

Marie-Christine Saladin montre, montre, montre ! Son travail est vaste et elle a sélectionné avec nous, le meilleur de son univers pour l’exposer à Paris, ville qu’elle connaît si bien : elle a pu tant de fois déjà embellir divers espaces de ses compositions aux fls rouges si différents mais qui se rejoignent dans une unité complexe.


AccessAccess expose pour ouvrir la galerie dans le monde des galeries fermées. Nous exposons, parce que nous voulons remettre l’art et l’échange humain au centre des réflexions. Exposer à Paris, en mai, à Marseille en juin, puis à nouveau à Paris…est pour nous une chance, pas une opportunité.

Nous agissons. Les théories deviennent pratiques réelles, les idées se transforment en projets authentiques.

Pour quoi faire ? Pour changer l’image de l’art et de la culture. Pour rendre l’art et la culture plus accessibles. Mais pas pour le faire sans vous, pour prétendre changer les choses en vous excluant. Mais pour les réinventer avec vous, pour construire l’art et la culture accessibles de demain, maintenant !!!

MERCI. Nous serions réellement heureux de vous rencontrer lors de cette exposition : alors venez nombreux !


Exposition AccessAccess



Du 21 mai au 3 juin 2012

Galerie le Cerisier

42 quai des Célestins – 75004 PARIS

Tous les jours de 11h à 19.30 h


[email protected]

Everlasting peace lessons from Mahatma Gandhi : quality peace education

Mahatma Gandhi’s everlasting peace quotes :

« Power is of two kinds. One is obtained by the fear of punishment and the other by acts of love. Power based on love is a thousand times more effective and permanent then the one derived from fear of punishment. »


« We must become the change we want to see in the world. »


« I shall conquer untruth by truth. And in resisting untruth, I shall put up with all suffering. »


« An eye for an eye will only make the whole world blind »


« There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no cause that I am prepared to kill for. »


World Press Freedom Day 2012 at UNESCO Headquarters

World Press Freedom Day 2012


Since 1993, when the United Nations General Assembly established the World Press Freedom Day celebrating the fundamental principles of press freedom, evaluating press freedom around the world, defending the media from attacks on their independence and to paying tribute to journalists who have lost their lives in the exercise of their profession, it is celebrated annually on May 3rd, the date on which the Windhoek Declaration was adopted.

UNESCO, which coordinates activities each year on May 3rd, had organized, this year, with the French Federation of UNESCO Clubs (FFCU) at the UNESCO Headquarters an important Press Freedom Forum confirming freedom of the press as a bridge of understanding and knowledge, and confirming that the dialogue and the exchange of ideas between high level journalists, experts, and civil society is essential.

Aleksandar Protic (Sorbonne, Harvard, Oxford, Cambridge Allumni), president of UNESCO Club at Sorbonne University, organised the event, mandated by the president of French Federation of Clubs, Associations and Centers for UNESCO, Yves Lopez.

High level journalists and experts participated and greatly contributed to Forum :

– Jean Chrisophe Buisson (Culture chief editor at Figaro Magazine)

– Julija Vidovic (RFI journalist, now UNESCO officer)

– Ana Dumitrescu (UNESCO Culture specialist and head of international UNESCO clubs projects)

– Ruxandra Boros (World Bank consultant and Professor in French School of government ENA)

– Boris Petrovic (web-journalist and essay writer).

The event was inaugurate be the press freedom related speech of President of FFCU Yves Lopez, and its vice-President Claude Vielix. The session was directed by Aleksandar Protic.

Most active french university UNESCO Clubs : from Sorbonne University and Sciences Po UPMC greatly contributed to Forum, participating in the event and encouraging and developing initiatives in favor of the freedom of the press.

Students from both universities UNESCO clubs participated in many ways : President of Science Po- UPMC UNESCO Club, Lara Kaute, as well as club’s representative speaker Benedicte Niel had the opportunity to address the Forum and present the work of their club reflection encouraging constructive debate among journalistes and professionals on the issues of press freedom.

UNESCO Club Sorbonne was first represented by the speech of Leandre Lucas regarding the impact and importance of press. His reflection was fallowed by the discourse of Julia Houas Medvedova concerning press : information, manipulation and disinformation. Representatives of UNESCO permanent delegations, UNESCO officers, and civil society members attended the Press Freedom Forum as well.

At this occasion, both Ana Dumitrescu (UNESCO Cultural Sector, previously Director General Office) and Jean Christophe Buisson (Chief Editor for Culture at Figaro Magazine) received the title of Cross-Cultural Ambassadors. Cross-Cultural Ambassadors are recognized by UNESCO Club Sorbonne for having made, a significant contribution to the promotion of cross-cultural understanding, promotion of peace, diversity, compassion, and environmental harmony, achieved through cooperative and non-violent means.


Daniela Iancu, Federal counselor FFCU



Tesla’s article on light and other high frequency phenomena

On light and other high frequency phenomena 

(Lecture before Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Feb. 1893); Journal of Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, (July 1893); National Electrical Light Association Proceedings, St. Louis, (1893).

Delivered before the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, February 1893,
and before the National Electric Light Association, St. Louis, March 1893.


« When we look at the world around us, on Nature, we are impressed with its beauty and grandeur.  Each thing we perceive, though it may be vanishingly small, is in itself a world, that is, like the whole of the universe, matter and force governed by law,—a world, the contemplation of which fills us with feelings of wonder and irresistibly urges us to ceaseless thought and inquiry.  But in all this vast world, of all objects our senses reveal to us, the most marvelous, the most appealing to our imagination, appears no doubt a highly developed organism, a thinking being.  If there is anything fitted to make us admire Nature’s handiwork, it is certainly this inconceivable structure, which performs its innumerable motions of obedience to external influence.  To understand its workings, to get a deeper insight into this Nature’s masterpiece, has ever been for thinkers a fascinating aim, and after many centuries of arduous research men have arrived at a fair understanding of the functions of its organs and senses.  Again, in all the perfect harmony of its parts, of the parts which constitute the material or tangible of our being, of all its organs and senses, the eye is the most wonderful.  It is the most precious, the most indispensable of our perceptive or directive organs, it is the great gateway through which all knowledge enters the mind.  Of all our organs, it is the one, which is in the most intimate relation with that which we call intellect.  So intimate is this relation, that it is often said, the very soul shows itself in the eye.

It can be taken as a fact, which the theory of the action of the eye implies, that for each external impression, that is, for each image produced upon the retina, the ends of the visual nerves, concerned in the conveyance of the impression to the mind, must be under a peculiar stress or in a vibratory state, It now does not seem improbable that, when by the power of thought an image is evoked, a distinct reflex action, no matter how weak, is exerted upon certain ends of the visual nerves, and therefore upon the retina.  Will it ever be within human power to analyse the condition of the retina when disturbed by thought or reflex action, by the help of some optical or other means of such sensitiveness, that a clear idea of its state might be gained at any time?  If this were possible, then the problem of reading one’s thoughts with precision, like the characters of an open book, might be much easier to solve than many problems belonging to the domain of positive physical science, in the solution of which many, if not the majority: of scientific men implicitly believe.  Helmholtz has shown that the fundi of the eye are themselves, luminous, and he was able to see, in total darkness, the movement of his arm by the light of his own eyes.  This is one of the most remarkable experiments recorded in the history of science, and probably only a few men could satisfactorily repeat it, for it is very likely, that the luminosity of the eyes is associated with uncommon activity of the brain and great imaginative power.  It is fluorescence of brain action, as it were. »

Read the full article here


“Vendredi 11 mars 2011, en début d’après-midi, la vibration des fenêtres. Quelque chose s’ouvre, grogne, frémit, demande à sortir.” (Michaël Ferrier, Fukushima Récit d’un désastre, collection L’infini, éditions Gallimard).

Ainsi s’ouvre la première partie du récit de Michaël Ferrier, “Le manche de l’éventail”. Il y relate la succession d’événements dramatiques qu’a connus le Japon à la fin de l’hiver 2011 : séismes à répétitions, tsunami et accident nucléaire.

Le Japon est certes habitué aux catastrophes naturelles, mais chacun peut imaginer l’écho qu’a pu avoir l’accident nucléaire de Fukushima dans le pays victime du double bombardement atomique d’Hiroshima et de Nagasaki

Cet accident est en partie imputable à l’homme et au choix qu’il a fait de l’énergie nucléaire. Or il n’est pas sans précédent : rappelons-nous Tchernobyl en 1986. À l’époque, certains avaient pu minimiser la portée de l’événement au motif qu’il survenait dans un pays fragilisé : l’URSS des dernières années. Ce motif ne saurait être allégué pour Fukushima puisque la centrale en question est celle d’un pays au niveau de développement technologique et industriel parmi les plus avancés au monde.

Dès lors la catastrophe de Fukushima interroge au delà des frontières nippones pour devenir un enjeu de civilisation. C’est cette réflexion qu’a voulu mener Michaël Ferrier, universitaire et écrivain français vivant au Japon depuis une vingtaine d’années. Pour autant, il ne s’agissait pas pour lui de rédiger un savant essai, mais de faire oeuvre littéraire ; comme a pu le faire Svetlana Alexievitch avec La Supplication – Tchernobyl, chronique du monde après l’apocalypse (éditions Jean-Claude Lattès, Paris, 1997).

La démarche de Michaël Ferrier est d’ailleurs comparable à celle de Svetlana Alexievitch : « Trois années durant, j’ai voyagé et questionné des hommes et des femmes de générations, de destins, de tempéraments différents. Tchernobyl est leur monde. Il empoisonne tout autour d’eux, la terre, l’air, l’eau mais aussi tout en eux, la conscience, le temps, la vie intérieure.” Alors qu’il aurait pu, au moment de la catastrophe, comme bien des expatriés, rentrer en France, Michaël Ferrier a choisi de faire le voyage vers le nord et d’aller à la rencontre de la population en souffrance.

Pour son entreprise littéraire, il se réclame de Robert Antelme qui, avec L’espèce humaine, avait relevé le défi d’écrire sur l’indicible. De même l’éditeur de Svetlana Alexievitch, Jean-Claude Lattès, rapproche La supplication de l’oeuvre des rescapés des camps : “Tout comme l’oeuvre de Primo Levi sur Auschwitz ou celle d’Alexandre Soljenitsyne sur le Goulag, son livre nomme l’indicible en faisant entendre, pour la première fois, les voix suppliciées de Tchernobyl.”

Ainsi la publication de Fukushima Récit d’un désastre ne peut que susciter l’intérêt des clubs Unesco. Or le rapprochement des clubs Unescube et Sorbonne, avec leur vision différente liée à la diversité de leur formation, rend fructueux un questionnement sur l’événement de Fukushima.

Michaël Ferrier, résidant pour un an en France dans le cadre d’une année sabbatique, est tout disposé à rencontrer les étudiants des deux clubs : à la rentrée prochaine, mais éventuellement plus tôt.

Avant cette rencontre, les clubs Unesco Unescube et Sorbonne sont conviés à un débat organisé jeudi 3 mai à 20 h à la Ménagerie de verre (12-14 rue Léchevin, Paris, XIe). Vous trouverez toutes informations en suivant ce lien :

Notez enfin la création d’un groupe sur Facebook :

Pour lors, ce groupe prétend surtout constituer une sorte de base de données autour du livre de Michaël Ferrier : il recense les différentes émissions auxquelles Michaël Ferrier a participé ou qui ont traité de son récit ; quelques critiques littéraires également. Ces données permettront à chacun de mesurer les enjeux de cette publication, mais la première chose à faire est évidemment de lire Fukushima.

Le groupe compte à ce jour peu de membres, car je n’ai pu inscrire que des membres figurant parmi mes amis. Cela étant, chacun peut librement demander à s’inscrire à ce groupe.

Pascal Vasseur

CLUB UNESCO SORBONNE sur le site de l’Académie de Paris


L’Académie de Paris est la circonscription scolaire et universitaire de la ville de Paris. La structure du rectorat de l’académie de Paris est orientée par sa spécificité monodépartementale et de l’importance que Paris donne traditionnellement à l’enseignement supérieur. Divers services académiques, de la maternelle à l’université, font unité répondant  à l’ensemble de la demande de formation et d’éducation.


L’académie de Paris compte actuellement plus de 769 écoles publiques ou privées sous contrat, dont plus de 310 000 étudiants (représentant environ 13 % de l’ensemble des étudiants de France, métropole et DOM) dans sept universités  suivantes :Université Paris-1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Université Panthéon-Assas, Sorbonne Nouvelle, Université Paris-Sorbonne, Université Paris-Descartes, Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie et Paris 7 – Denis Diderot.


Trois établissement importants d’enseignement supérieur et de recherche (École normale supérieure, École nationale des chartes, École des hautes études en sciences sociales)   font également partie de l’Académie de Paris mais se distinguent par une indépendance totale.


CLUB UNESCO SORBONNE sur le site de L’Académie de Paris :

Club UNESCO Sorbonne soutient le EARTH HOUR !




















Cet événement mondial est initié par le WWF. C’est l’heure durant lequel les citoyens ainsi que tous ayant une conscience écologique éteignent leurs lumières.


Depuis le début de l’opération, en 2007, l’événement est devenu, selon son organisateur, le Fonds mondial pour la nature (WWF), la plus grande démonstration du soutien mondial à la lutte contre la pollution aux gaz à effet de serre. L’an passé, 5 251 villes et 1,8 milliard de personnes dans 135 pays y avaient participé, selon le WWF.


« La Earth Hour 2012 est la célébration du pouvoir des peuples », a déclaré le responsable du WWF-Australie Dermot O’Gorman. « Des centaines de millions de gens dans différents pays du monde agissent bien au-delà de ces 60 minutes pour la planète. »


Club UNESCO Sorbonne vous invite de l’accompagner dans cette lutte pour le bien être de notre environnement :


Samedi 31 mars 2012 de 20h30 à 21h30































L’UNESCO et ses partenaires ont célébré

 La Journée internationale contre le racisme

et toute forme de discrimination

du 21-23 mars 2012 au Palais de l’UNESCO.


A cette occasion la Fédération Française des Clubs UNESCO

a invité les ambassadeurs,

les représentants de l’UNESCO,

les clubs UNESCO,

ainsi que les acteurs importants

de la société civile ad hoc.













La plateforme de Haut Niveau a été accompagnée

 d’un symbole fort

qui illustrait la lutte contre la discrimination :

le photographe serbe IVAN BOZINOSKI

a exposé ses photos portant sur les enfants

des habitations provisoires « Romville ».

IVAN BOZINOSKI a rejoint l’assemblé  

afin de présenter ses travaux.

Toute au long de l’événement,

les intervenants et les participants ont eu l’occasion

d’observer et apprécier les photos

de photographe serbe fort talentueux.















Suite à ses engagements importants et fondamentaux, puis,

suite à la conférence et exposition qu’ IVAN BOZINOSKI

a présenté à l’Université de Paris Sorbonne

le 26 mars 2012,

le Club UNESCO Sorbonne l’a nommé :

membre du Club à titre honorifique.















Le Club UNESCO Sorbonne saisit cette occasion pour rappeler

l’Article premier de

La Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme :


« Tous les êtres humains naissent

libres et égaux en dignité et en droits.

 Ils sont doués de raison et de conscience

et doivent agir les uns envers les autres

dans un esprit de fraternité. »




Ivan Bozinoski photos in UNESCO Headquarters at High Level Meeting









 Le photographe serbe Ivan Bozinoski a exposé au siège de l’UNESCO, lors des Journées internationales contre la discrimination (21-23 mars 2012), une série de photos en noir et blanc « Les enfants de Romville » ou « Deca Romvila » en serbe.  Les clichés du photographe talentueux photographe ont servi de décor aux Conférences de Haut Niveau contre la Discrimination, en présence des ambassadeurs, des représentants de l’UNESCO, de la Fédération Française des Clubs UNESCO, des ONG et associations militant contre la discrimination. Pour remercier le photographe de son soutien au mouvement des Clubs UNESCO, et qui plus est encourager sa lutte noble contre la discrimination raciale, le Club UNESCO Sorbonne a nommé Ivan Bozinoski membre d’honneur de Club. Cette nomination est d’autant plus symbolique que le photographe serbe est également l’invité de la direction des études interculturelles (CIMER) à l’Université de Paris Sorbonne afin de donner une conférence et exposer ses photos.





Evrard-Florentin (UNESCUBE),  Ivan Bozinoski,  Rima Kharatyan (UNESCO Secteur Culture),  Yves Lopez (Président de la FFCU)






Le Club UNESCO Sorbonne suit les lignes directrice proposées par l’ONU au sujet de la Journée internationale pour l’élimination de la discrimination raciale et invite toute personne à se joindre à cette philosophie de paix :


« Le thème de l’année 2012, « Le racisme et les conflits », nous rappelle que le racisme et la discrimination sont souvent à l’origine de conflits meurtriers.


Le thème a été choisi pour souligner la relation souvent ignorée entre le racisme et les conflits, qui se renforcent mutuellement. Dans de nombreuses régions du monde, le racisme, les préjugés et la xénophobie  créent des tensions extrêmes et sont utilisés comme des armes puissantes pour engendrer la peur ou la haine en temps de conflit. Les préjugés et la xénophobie peuvent même conduire au génocide, à des crimes contre l’humanité, au nettoyage ethnique et aux crimes de guerre.


Le thème de cette année vise à sensibiliser le public sur ces questions et à rappeler le sort des victimes qui ont souffert ou continuent de souffrir en raison de conflits liés au racisme.


L’article 1 de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme  affirme que tous les êtres humains naissent libres et égaux en dignité et en droits.  La Journée internationale pour l’élimination de la discrimination raciale nous rappelle que nous avons la responsabilité collective de promouvoir et de protéger cet idéal.  Il nous faut ensemble redoubler d’efforts pour mettre un terme à la discrimination raciale et à la xénophobie, où qu’elles se présentent. »


Aleksandar Protic : lectures at Oxford University


Aleksandar Protic, president of UNESCO Club and director of Intercultural Forum at Sorbonne- Paris University was invited to Oxford University where he gave two lectures :


        19 January 2012 in

Oxford University Balliol College at the Dean’s Seminar :

Youth involvement for UNESCO



       15 January 2012

at the headquarters of the Oxford University Society of St Alban & Sergius :

 Fostering UNESCO World Heritage and Sustainable development



Each lecture, intended to university staff, postgraduate students and undergraduate students of Oxford University Colleges and guests, was followed by a question period and reception. The officials of Oxford university were very enthusiastic after the lectures :

 “The diversity of UNESCO’s programs, the wide scope of patrimony included in the World Heritage sites program and the organization’s potential for youth involvement both nationally and internationally are very little known in Britain, and both audiences showed their appreciation of the opportunity to learn more on these subjects through enthusiastic questions, discussion and request for sources of further information…”

Our thanks are due to Revd. H. Douglas Dupree, Dean of Oxford University Balliol College, ad hoc Acting Chaplain Revd. Celeste Tisdelle, Lonsdale Curator of Archives and Manuscripts of Balliol College Anna Sander, society president Kristian Akselberg, as well as students, coordinators in organization of Balliol Dean seminar’s lecture: Ms Catherine Brooks and Ms Aine Quinn.


Depuis janvier 2012, les membres du Club UNESCO Sorbonne, principalement issus des formations interculturelles, ont décidé de décerner le titre d’Ambassadeur Interculturel du Club UNESCO Sorbonne aux personnalités qui donnent une résonance particulière à l’interculturalité.

Les Ambassadeurs Interculturels se sont engagés et ont généreusement contribué à la compréhension ou à la communication interculturelle ; ils peuvent aussi apporter une contribution importante dans les champs suivants : l’éducation, la culture, la science et la communication / information.


Le titre honorifique d’Ambassadeur Interculturel, réservé aux personnalités qui se sont distinguées en faveur de l’interculturalité, peut également récompenser un grand engagement personnel en faveur des droits de l’homme, de la paix et de la justice sociale ou pour saluer un parcours professionnel exemplaire.


Dans chaque discipline, les nominations sont principalement issues des propositions des membres du Club UNESCO, mais le Club Sorbonne va s’ouvrir et donner la possibilité aux collègues des autres clubs UNESCO, de la Fédération Française des Clubs UNESCO, de l’UNESCO ou des professeurs du Master de Communication Interculturelle (CIMER) de l’Université Paris IV Sorbonne, de recommander des personnes ad hoc, s’ils le souhaitent.


Le titre d’Ambassadeur Interculturel est purement honorifique, sans profit matériel, sans rétribution ni obligation, à seule fin d’honorer un parcours interculturel d’importance.


Tesla : chemin vers la paix

« Nous avons tous besoin d’un idéal pour diriger notre vie et assurer notre sérénité, peu importe qu’il soit basé sur une religion, un art, une science ou toute autre chose, pourvu qu’elle remplisse les fonctions d’une force immatérielle.

Il est capital de faire prévaloir une conception commune pour que l’humanité, en tant que tout, vive dans la paix. »   Mes Inventions


« Nous arrivons à la fin d’un siècle qui a connu plus de bouleversements que tous les siècles précédents réunis. Les progrès de la science ont amélioré considérablement les conditions de vie de l’humanité.

Et pourtant, malgré toutes les promesses des scientifiques, le monde dans lequel nous vivons est au bord de la rupture, il se dirige à une vitesse phénoménale vers une situation de catastrophe. L’explosion démographique, la destruction de l’environnement, des forêts tropicales et tempérées, l’augmentation de gaz carbonique dans l’atmosphère, la pollution de l’eau ne sont que quelques aspects qui nous font frémir.Nous avons atteint un seuil critique. Nous en sommes tous pleinement conscients.

A ceci s’ajoutent des tensions politiques et militaires, qu’on tente d’expliquer par des différences de conceptions politiques, économiques ou culturelles. La véritable raison en est pourtant la répartition inégale des richesses.»

Conférence à l’American Institute of electrical Engineers de New York 20/5/1891

Alena Nikiforova and Aleksandr Kunda : winners exhibition at UNESCO




« Liberty of expression in Moscow underground as a new aesthetic metamorphosis »


We received many diverse, beautiful, and sometimes unexpected images. The work of the finalists highlights all of these strengths and demonstrates noticeable skill and vision.


 Both Alena Nikiforova  and Aleksandr Kunda won the FIRST PRIZE

and exhibited their work at UNESCO Headquarters, Paris

on 10 December 2011 – International Human Rights Day

Prizes are

–   Exhibition at UNESCO Headquarters during the  International Human Rights Day 2011

–   Directing photography workshop for students at UNESCO Headquarters the same day



Liberty of expression in Moscow underground as a new aesthetic metamorphosis by ALENA NIKIFOROVA
All rights reserved


Liberty of expression in Moscow underground as a new aesthetic metamorphosis by ALEKSANDR KUNDA
All rights reserved



TESLA Trans-disciplinary Project in The National School of Chemistry, Physics and Biology

TESLA Trans-disciplinary Project in The National School of Chemistry, Physics and Biology (Paris, France)



Thanks be given to Tesla Memory Project Member Professor Pascal Vasseur who implemented the project, to director Jean-claude Lafay, who authorized and helped the project and Professors Martine Gueye-Bussy and Valéry Travet, during  school year 2010-2011, students had the opportunity to learn about Tesla in diverse disciplines including physics, chemistry, literature and English language.

Details about the project are available in French language (PROJET INTERDISCIPLINAIRE TESLA).


Why Transdisciplinarity ?


Despite numerous attempts to stem social and scientific disparities, they continue to grow being increasingly recognized as national and international’s education priority.

The origins of these disparities are multidimensional, and as such a comprehensive approach to understanding and ultimately mitigating them must involve interactions across traditional academic boundaries; however, the formal curricula in most graduate programs provide little opportunity for or instruction in trans-disciplinary thinking or interaction.

A charter on Transdisciplinarity was adopted at a World Congress in 1994 :

“Transdisciplinarity a posteriori complements disciplinary approaches as the transdisciplinary approach goes beyond the exact sciences and proposes dialogue with the humanities and the social sciences. The recognition of the existence of different levels of perception governed by different types of logic is inherent in the transdisciplinary attitude.”





Au cours de l’année scolaire 2010-2011, un projet interdisciplinaire a été

mené au lycée Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (Ecole Nationale de Chimie, Physique et

Biologie). La mise en place de la réforme du lycée, et notamment le dispositif

d’accompagnement personnalisé, a favorisé la réalisation du projet. Deux

professeurs impliqués dans le projet, le professeur de physique-chimie et le

professeur de lettres, étaient déjà associés dans le cadre de cet accompagnement.



L’idée du projet est née à la faveur de la publication, à l’automne 2010, du

roman de Jean Echenoz, Des éclairs. Même si le héros de cette vie imaginaire

s’appelle Gregor, chacun y aura reconnu la figure de Nikola Tesla.



L’objectif était de permettre aux élèves d’approfondir leur culture scientifique

tout en l’articulant avec la démarche littéraire. Dans un lycée à dominante

scientifique, il me semblait opportun de ne pas opposer les deux cultures, mais au

contraire de les lier.



Le projet a été proposé à toute l’équipe pédagogique, mais tous ne pouvaient

s’y inscrire. D’autant plus que j’ai proposé le projet assez tard dans l’année : au

début du printemps. Certains, comme Hugues Templier, professeur de Sciences de

l’ingénieur, ont manifesté leur intérêt, sans pouvoir s’y impliquer directement.

Le projet s’est donc articulé autour de trois disciplines et trois professeurs :

– Martine Gueye-Bussy pour la physique-chimie ;

– Valéry Travet pour l’anglais ;

– Pascal Vasseur, pour les lettres.

Trois actions ont été réalisées :

– visite-exposé au palais de la Découvert autour de l’électromagnétisme ;

– deux conférences autour de Tesla : Aleksandar Protic en cours d’anglais et

Boris Petrovic en cours de français ;

– lecture du roman par des élèves volontai res et synthèse en

accompagnement personnalisé.



Je laisserai à mes collègues le soin d’établir un bilan dans leurs disciplines

respectives, mais voici en deux mots ce que je retiens pour le français.

A] pour les élèves


1) Succès certain du roman. J’avais acquis cinq exemplaires du roman qui ont

circulé en classe : les élèves étaient tous demandeurs et ont parfaitement joué le

jeu (lire le roman en une semaine). Il faut souligner qu’il s’agissait d’une classe

assez faible et fort peu littéraire, mais précisément le fait de leur offrir une image de

la littérature non plus seulement comme véhiculant les thèmes traditionnels, mais

capable de s’ouvrir aux mondes technique et scientifique les a séduits. Leur

engouement s’explique sans doute aussi par la proximité du roman : roman

contemporain s’il en est, puisque paru en 2010.

2) Renouveau de l’image du héros : le génie scientifique peut s’incarner dans

un héros de roman.

3) L’accompagnement personnalisé proposé en 2010-11 pour la première fois

a, semble-t-il, bénéficié de ce projet : les élèves lui ont trouvé un sens, alors que

les tentatives du début de l’année leur semblaient moins concluantes.

B] pour les professeurs

Intérêt de l’interdisciplinarité : l’équipe pédagogique, très unie face une classe

difficile, s’est trouvée renforcée par la réalisation de ce projet.



Il pourrait être profitable de faire

connaître le projet dans d’autres lycées pour, le cas échéant, être repris par les équipes

pédagogiques. Il me semblerait opportun de prendre contact avec la Délégation

Académique aux Arts et à la Culture (DAAC) de l’académie de Paris.

Une autre piste serait d’accroître la coopération avec l’UNESCO, notamment

avec ses spécialistes de programme du Secteur des sciences exactes et

naturelles, Division des sciences fondamentales et de l’ingénierie.

Une troisième piste enfin serait d’associer le club UNESCO de Fontenay-aux-

Roses, animé par Suzanne Faye, professeur de physique en classes

préparatoires. Celle-ci mène un travail de vulgarisation de la culture scientifique

dans les établissements scolaires.


Prof Pascal Vasseur

High level meeting on Sustainable Developement

UNESCO Club Sorbonne had the honor and a pleasure to participate in



Oceans at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) 

 Building ocean and coastal sustainability and greening the Blue Economy


meeting held in UNESCO Headquarters in Paris on 1st November 2011 during the 36th UNESCO General Conference.


As the year 2012 will be the year of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, this Side event was first organized in order to inform Member States and meeting participants on the objectives and issues that will be negotiated at Rio+20 conference, from an ocean perspective.

 Secondly, meeting brought attention on initiatives taken by UNESCO/IOC, and other UN agencies (UNDP, IMO, FAO) to underline the role of oceans in sustainable development, including in the formulation of key proposals that could be agreed by Member States at Rio. Finally, a forum for Member States to present their perspectives on key ocean issues and national preparation for Rio+20, had been provided.

Approximately 60 persons were present at the side event, which was opened by Ms Irina Bokova, UNESCO Director-General. Introduction by Executive Secretary of   Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission presented the Rio+20 process and the UN Document ‘Blueprint for ocean and coastal sustainability’.

Several Member States Representatives elocution followed as well as those of representatives of UN Agencies, Funds and Programs. The side event ended by an interactive and constructive discussion.


Club UNESCO Sorbonne at UNESCO : Tagore, Neruda and Césaire honoured

Tagore, Neruda and Césaire honoured at UNESCO

© UNESCO – Tagore, Neruda, Césaire

UNESCO is organizing an international forum on 13 September to launch a programme honouring Rabindrânâth Tagore, Pablo Neruda and Aimé Césaire, three poets who, each in his own way, carried high the standard of humanist values.

The Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova, will open the international forum (Room II, 10 a.m.), which will focus on three themes: emancipation from oppression (10.30-11.15), the human being and nature (11.30-12.15) and the educational challenge (12.30-1.15 p.m.). Speakers at the forum include, French sociologist and philosopher Edgar Morin; Guadeloupian writer and poet Daniel Maximin; the French government’s Commissaire chargé de l’Année des outre-mer français, Indian writer U.R. Ananthamurthy; and Chilean writer Jorge Edwards.

A tribute to Tagore will take place on the eve of the forum, on 12 September (Room I, 6.30 p.m.). Organized with Bangladesh’s and India’s Permanent Delegations to UNESCO as part of the 150th anniversary of the birth of the Bengali poet, the cultural evening will feature a programme of song, dance and poetry readings.

A set of five CDs with about forty musical works by Tagore has been issued by Media Access, a company based in Calcutta, his native city, under the aegis of UNESCO.

Launched in the wake of the International Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures (2010), the Rabindrânâth Tagore, Pablo Neruda and Aimé Césaire programme aims to promote translations, publications, and creations connected to the three writers. It will also facilitate the dissemination and adaptation of their message. These activities are to be implemented by Member States, public or private institutions.

Beyond their different geographic, social and political contexts, Tagore, Neruda and Césaire, have promoted humanist values, each in his way. They also showed a commitment to speaking for the voiceless. By challenging relations based on domination and submission – whether they concern colonialism, fascism or racism – their message attains a universal dimension.

A UNESCO work, Rabindrânâth Tagore, Pablo Neruda, Aimé Césaire for a reconciled universal, pays tribute this universal oeuvre. Published in English, French and Spanish, this richly illustrated book, examines the legacy of the three authors and their messages from a comparatist perspective.

Taken from UNESCO website

Semaine de la Serbie à Paris

Club UNESCO Sorbonne,

partenaire officielle du Centre Culturel de Serbie

  pour la promotion de la Semaine de la Serbie à Paris

vous invite vivement à la Mairie du  XVIè arrondissement  

pour savourer la Semaine de la Serbie à Paris.

Le contenu de programme se déroulera :

-dans la Mairie de 16ème,

-dans la Résidence de l’ambassadeur de la République de Serbie à Paris

(splendide résidence avec grand jardin donnant sur Trocadéro),

-au Théâtre de Ranelagh,

-au Centre culturel de Serbie (face au Centre Pompidou).

Tesla Symposium held at Simon Fraser University

The International Symposium « Tesla Day at SFU 2006 » was held at Simon Fraser University, Burnaby Campus, on Friday, November 17, 2006, in celebration of the 150th anniversary from the birth of one the greatest inventors, scientists, and engineers of 20th century, Nikola Tesla.

Tesla Day at SFU 2006 aims to foster exchange and collaboration among researchers in the fields pioneered and initiated by the research and legacy of Nikola Tesla. Invited lecturers will present reviews, tutorials, and address future research trends in scientific and engineering fields. « Tesla Day at SFU 2006 » is unique symposium on the West Coast commemorating Tesla’s achievements and one of several events planned by the Tesla Organizing Committee in Vancouver.

The symposium is intended for researchers and graduate students in engineering, computer science, physical sciences, and applied mathematics, as well as professional engineers. Invited speakers are internationally recognized experts in their fields. The symposium will be held in conjunction with a traveling exhibit from the Tesla Museum in Belgrade.

Read more here

Université de la Terre ou la réconciliation entre l’écologie et l’économie

Les membres du Club UNESCO Sorbonne avaient participé à l’Université de la Terre le 2 et le 3 avril 2011 à l’UNESCO. Inaugurée en 2005 à l’UNESCO, cette plateforme de réflexion exceptionnelle est conçue comme un carrefour de réflexion et de débats sur les grands thèmes de la société et de l’environnement. Ayant pour thème « Bâtir une nouvelle société » cette 4ème université d’excellence a réuni des leaders de la société contemporaine françaises : dirigeants d’entreprises, scientifiques,  économistes, politiques de haut niveau ainsi qu’hommes de religion pour partager leur savoir et débattre avec le public.

De nombreuses personnes de vocations différentes ont assisté aux 21 débats abordant la problématique de réconciliation entre le développement économique et équilibre écologique en s’interrogeant sur le rôle et la place de l’homme dans ce contexte. Comme la prise de conscience n’est pas toujours suivie par prise d’action, il était souligné comme urgent que l’on commence à réfléchir sur comment s’engager vraiment pour mieux respecter l’environnement. Comment consommer mieux, faire prévaloir la qualité à la quantité, comment devenir un acteur d’un changement positif et par conséquent donner un sens profond à notre existence ?

Le discours de Pierre Rabhi, agriculteur et philosophe, fait partie des réponses à cette interrogation qui ont particulièrement marquée le public à l’UNESCO lors de cette rencontre. En guise de conclusion, nous indiquons la démarche qu’il propose, consistant à prendre réellement conscience de la dimension belle, sacré et simple de la vie, de la savourer et d’en prendre soin.

Conférence d’Anna Sander (Oxford University) en Sorbonne : résumé


Understanding Ourselves:

interpretation of college archives as intercultural communication


College archivists need to have a good understanding of their collections as a whole, and a long term view of what needs doing to and for them, but our work is usually concerned with specific issues such as records of an individual Old Member, an event or a college living. We tend to produce short, more or less unconnected pieces of research that contribute to the work of others; it’s rare that we have time to step back and look at our own work on a more general or theoretical level. An invitation to speak to the Sorbonne’s CIMER course theme of intercultural communication, for which I presented the original version of this article, offered an opportunity to examine what I do through a new lens, looking at the numerous demographics for whom I interpret Balliol’s archives and manuscripts.

The usual social science definition of intercultural communication has to do with national boundaries, geographical distance, ethnic background, and language. Rarer examples include factors  more relevant to my work such as different education systems or generations. Differences in language and geographical or ethnic culture are generally allowed for and expected in enquiries about the archives; more likely to need explanation are cultural differences across time – generations and even centuries – social class and levels of education. And the most important, most frequent and often most difficult differences to understand are cultural and linguistic ones between Balliol, Oxford and the rest of the world.

As the college archivist, my responsibilities fall into two categories: to ensure that the archives and manuscripts survive for future generations in at least as good a condition as they are in now, and to make both the original manuscripts and information about them as widely accessible as possible. My priorities are to fulfil these two responsibilities to several very different audiences: the current college administration, members of Balliol past and present, and the wider community of researchers with specific interests ranging from medieval history to modern architecture and including many family and local historians. I receive an average of 500-600 enquiries every year; about 70% are from outside the college, and the vast majority of those concern family history.

For the purposes of this article I will concentrate on access – this includes cataloguing, digital photography, answering enquiries, composing presentations of various kinds about the collections both as physical exhibitions and on the Web, and carrying out research on the collections myself in order to be able to explain and interpret them for enquirers.

The collections for which I am responsible fall into three distinct but closely related parts. At their core are the institutional archives – the administrative records of the college, going back in some cases to its very beginnings in the 13th century. I also curate the more than three hundred medieval manuscript books and the hundred or so collections of modern personal papers belonging to individual former members of Balliol.

So how can the college’s archives and manuscripts play an active part in college life and culture, not just as a dead record of the past? Integrating the archives into different aspects of current college culture – staff, Fellows, students – is an ongoing and interesting task.

Current college administration requires perhaps the least ‘cultural’ interpretation of records; as the functions – and the problems – of the college have remained the same, the administrators of today understand very well the kinds of things their predecessors dealt with. There may be differences in how these things are recorded or at what level of detail, or indeed in what language, but basically the core functions have remained the same. I am regularly asked by college officers for building plans, dossiers for individual past members, and just occasionally something quite unusual.

From time to time, I am asked why we bother to retain medieval records, and how documents 700 years old can possibly still be relevant. However, we have recently had a forcible reminder that in some cases even our most ancient parchments can still have vital legal importance. Oxford colleges were originally founded as charitable foundations, and in 2008 the Charity Commission requested documentary proof of their original intention and purpose. The college archivists sent digital images, transcriptions and translations – because all the medieval and early modern documents are written in Latin, in the characteristic hand of the day – of our respective foundation charters and other relevant documents. Balliol’s first statutes of 1282 do not mention learning or teaching; rather, they emphasise the requirement for members to pray regularly in chapel for the souls of the founders and benefactors. The purpose of the college was indeed the education of a number of scholars, but that particular function is not mentioned. It is not until 1284 that a charter from the Bishop of Lincoln (D.4.3-4) mentions words such as ‘studying,’ ‘learning,’ ‘lectures’ and ‘graduating’ – this turned out to be a key document in our presentation to the Charity Commission.

In the past, most student members of Balliol have had no idea during their time as undergraduates that their college possessed such manuscript treasures. I regularly meet old members who are delighted to learn about the collections, but disappointed that they never knew about them while they were in Oxford.  I am making efforts to get students involved – both academically, because in several disciplines some use of original source material is required for the final dissertation, and socially, because some of our best surviving and most interesting classes of records come from the college sport clubs and student societies. Current Boat Club members have enjoyed reading detailed training programmes and race descriptions by rowers in the 1880s,  and recent Presidents of the Arnold and Brackenbury Society have investigated lists of past debate topics and speakers, from Lord Curzon to Boris Johnson. The clubs’ and societies’ photo albums are a gold mine for all sorts of historians. I occasionally speak to student groups about my work and liaise with the JCR, clubs and societies to increase their awareness of their own predecessors’ records in the archives, and their understanding of keeping society records for the next generation.

Old Members too have opportunities to encounter archive and manuscript material, at exhibitions during Gaudies or Balliol Society events and through their own enquiries. This kind of interaction is often reciprocal, as old members regularly send deposits of society records and explain to me customs and terms from their own time at Balliol, and are often helpful in identifying places and faces in old photographs.

Scholars and academics from around the world are the most obvious sector of my ‘client base’, but their enquiries form a small percentage of my annual correspondence. Most of their research intersects with college records in some very specific way – about an individual, a text in a manuscript, a piece of property. In their area of focus they usually know more than I do, and often what they need from me is not help understanding a manuscript but my more lateral knowledge of the collections and what else we might have that is relevant. Others will sometimes get in touch rather too early in their research, and need guidance to shape their research question, or redirection to other repositories.

Amateur historians, mostly family historians working on their own genealogy but also some investigating the history of houses and properties, form more than half of my enquiries every year. As well as substantive information about individual old members or farm leases, responses to these enquiries often include explanations of university slang, legal terminology, translations from medieval Latin and transcriptions of old handwriting.

One of the most asked-about generations or time periods is the first world war, from family, military and local historians. Balliol is fortunate in several ways because one of the Fellows edited a two-volume memorial of every Balliol man who fell in the war, and in some cases we have other photos from their activity in a college sports team or society. One confusion I often have to explain is that during the war the few students in residence moved into Trinity, and the Broad Street site was used by the government for training officer cadets. Many of these men enjoyed their time at Balliol, and in some cases their fond memories have grown into family myth-understandings that they were members of Balliol and obtained Oxford degrees. Whereupon I have to explain they would have been there for all of six weeks…

And how do I carry out all this research and make it available to people? Aside from the quotidian correspondence on specific topics with individual enquirers, the traditional intellectual media for interpreting archives to wider audiences are principally the catalogue and the exhibition. A catalogue provides an organised list of the contents of a collection and their relationship to each other, while exhibitions shape features of a collection and provide more context.

Digital and online resources of all kinds are now any archivist’s stock in trade. At its most basic a catalogue can still be completed with paper and pencil and sent by post, but these days cataloguing is usually done direct to computer as either a Word document or a database. Many of Balliol’s catalogues of archives and manuscripts are available from our own website and via national online archive networks. A growing number of Oxford college archives (including Balliol) now use AdLib database software for cataloguing, and plans are afoot to produce an AdLib-based online union catalogue analogous to Cambridge’s JANUS project.

Exhibitions certainly continue in their traditional format, displaying original manuscripts, often with an accompanying guide and an introductory talk by the curator. While physical exhibitions are open for only a limited time, whether supporting teaching or college events, they now also have a permanent digital afterlife on the archives’ website, which gives a chance to add more images, further information and links to related collections, as well as later updates on the subject.

Online resources are overwhelmingly the most effective way to provide information to nearly all the audience groups with an interest in Balliol’s archives and special collections. In contrast to the hundreds of emails that come in, I receive perhaps a dozen letters each year, and reply to at least half of those by email. While they are no replacement for original non-digital documents, and not (yet) reliable in the long term, digital facsimiles of documents, i.e. scans and photographs, are excellent tools for giving free worldwide accessibility and extra functionality to traditional media. Searchability is the most obvious, including image tags and geotagging as well as keyword searching of text. Balliol’s archives and manuscripts collections have active and growing presences on our own website, a WordPress blog, Twitter, Facebook and Flickr. I hope to show in future reports that these resources help to both answer and encourage research enquiries.

My primary responsibilities are to the administration and members of the college; however, my correspondence also provides significant outreach to several hundred people every year who have all kinds of misgivings and misconceptions about Oxford’s ‘exclusivity’, and would have no other reason than a family history enquiry to get in touch with the college or the university. I think that some of my enquirers  – and not only those from outside Oxford – assume that Oxford college archivists are tweedy old (male) academics, antediluvian in their attitudes and disinclined to be helpful. It takes a certain amount of courage to write to such a (perceived) person, and a courteous professional response can help to break down cultural barriers.

This article originated as one section of a lecture to postgraduate students on the Master CIMER (Communication interculturelle et muséologie au sein de l’Europe en reconstruction) programme at the Sorbonne (Paris IV) in March 2011. My thanks are due to Mr. Aleksandar Protic, President of the Sorbonne UNESCO Club, for arranging my visit, and to the course director, Prof. Francis Conte (Hon Fellow of St Antony’s), for his very kind welcome. An illustrated version of the whole lecture is available online at

Conférence d’Anna Sander (Oxford University) en Sorbonne

Club UNESCO Sorbonne avait un grand plaisir d’inviter et d’accueillir, le 22 mars 2011, en Sorbonne, Ms Anna Sander, chargée des archives et manuscrits de plus ancien collège de l’Université d’Oxford: Balliol’s College. Nous remercions Prof Francis Conte, qui a accueilli Ms Sander et rendu possible son intervention en cours de la Communication interculturelle et muséologie au sein de l’Europe en reconstruction.

La conférence proposé par Ms Sander « Understanding Ourselves: interpretation of college archives as intercultural communication » s’inscrit dans le travail du Club UNESCO Sorbonne, dans le cadre du programme concernant la diversité culturelle.

L’Europe autour de l’Europe, important festival de film d’auteur et d’art de la Grande Europe présente les films des années soixante et contemporains sur lesquels repose le prestige des cinématographies nationales des pays de l’Europe du Sud et de l’Est, de l’Europe Centrale et de l’Europe Occidentale.

Club UNESCO Sorbonne, nouveau partenaire du festival, vous recommande cordialement de découvrir ces films, fruits d’une sélection exceptionnelle :

Programme Paris

Programme Île-de-France

Programme Normandie

  • 20 mars — Andé, Moulin d’Andé (65 rue du Moulin, 27430 Andé)
  • 27 et 28 mars, 11 avril — Bernay, Cinéma Le Rex (7 rue Lobrot, 27300 Bernay)
  • 7, 10 et 12 avril — Pont-Audemer, Cinéma Le Royal (16 rue du Général Leclerc, 27500 Pont-Audemer)
  • 11 et 13 avril — Bernay, MJC de Bernay (place de la République, 27300 Bernay)


Contrepoints : industries créatives – diversité culturelle

Club UNESCO Sorbonne, chargé de promotion de cette événement à l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne, invite les étudiants intéressés au siège de l’UNESCO

mardi 22 mars 2011, de 17h30 à 19h30

Salle II,  Maison de l’UNESCO,  7 place de Fontenoy, 75007 PARIS

Frédéric MARTEL
Ecrivain, sociologue et producteur de l’émission « Masse Critique » à France culture

Réalisateur et critique cinématographique

Sharmila ROY
Interprète, auteur-compositeur et professeur de musicologie à l’INALCO

Doudou DIENE
Ancien Directeur de la Division des projets interculturels de l’UNESCO

Débat avec la Salle

Avec la participation de : Francesco BANDARIN

(Entrée libre avec badge ou pièce d’identité)

Inscriptions : [email protected] ou  tél : 01 45 68 39 53

Contrepoints : Industries créatives, diversité culturelle

En confrontant différents points de vue sur le rapport des industries créatives à la diversité culturelle, cette rencontre ouvre à l’UNESCO la nouvelle série « Contrepoints » : un espace de réflexion et de débat proposant à des intellectuels, artistes, décideurs et formateurs d’opinion de s’exprimer régulièrement sur les questions d’actualité qui relèvent de la mission de l’Organisation et matière de culture et de patrimoine.
Auteur du remarqué Mainstream : enquête sur cette culture qui plaît à tout le monde, le sociologue Frédéric MARTEL, producteur de l’émission « Masse Critique » à France culture, présentera les résultats de l’enquête qu’il a menée dans 30 pays sur une expansion planétaire qu’il décrit comme une véritable « guerre mondiale de la culture et des médias ».

Deux créateurs ayant à cet égard une expérience, une recherche et une réflexion personnelles témoigneront de leurs parcours dans les méandres de ce « Mainstream ». Férid BOUGHÉDIR, écrivain, critique cinématographique et réalisateur couronné de plusieurs récompenses est aussi professeur d’université à Tunis et l’auteur de publications et de documentaires sur les cinémas africain et arabe. Sharmila ROY, la voix que l’on entend dans les films de Satyajit Ray, Nacer Khemir et Peter Brook, enseigne la musicologie à l’INALCO. Conformément aux principes qu’elle a appris à Shantiniketan, l’université fondée par Rabindranath Tagore, son œuvre maintes fois primée cherche à dépasser les frontières entre la culture classique et la culture de masse.

Francesco BANDARIN, Sous Directeur-général du Secteur de la culture de l’UNESCO, participera aux discussions ouvertes au public et modérées par Georges POUSSIN, chef de la Section des industries créatives pour le développement. Doudou DIENE, co-auteur de Patrimoine culturel et créations contemporaines : Tradition orale et archives de la traite négrière (UNESCO, 2001), ancien Directeur de la Division des projets interculturels et de l’étude intégrale « Routes de la soie : routes du dialogue » tirera les conclusions de ce débat.


The Competition


The UNESCO CLUB SORBONNE PHOTOGRAPHY AWARD 2011  is run by the UNESCO Club Sorbonne Photography Award Committee. President of the Committee is Julia Houas.

By entering the Competition you are deemed to accept these Competition Rules and the Terms and Conditions.

Who can enter?

The Competition is open to all professional and amateur photographers worldwide. If you are under 18 you must have a parent or legal guardian’s permission to enter.


« Liberty of expression in Moscow underground as a new aesthetic metamorphosis »


Opening and closing dates

The Competition will open for entries at 11.00 GMT on 10 January 2011 and will close at 5 November 2011.

How to enter

All Entries, whether taken digitally or on film, must be submitted electronically. Scans from film or prints are acceptable.

Project statement

Entries into the Series Competition are required to be accompanied by a project statement. This should be between 90 – 150 words, and describe the work for the purposes of judging.

Judging and notification

The head of a Judging Committee is Julia Houas. The names of the judges are subject to change without notice at the sole discretion of the organisers.

The jury met face-to-face all the candidates and selected two winners.

Judging will take place in September 2011.

The judges will select 30 images to be exhibited.

Winners will be announced at least 30 days before the award ceremony at the UNESCO Headquarters in Paris during the  International Human Rights Day – 10 December 2011.

The judges’ decision is final and no discussion or correspondence can be entered into in respect of their decision.


Prizes are

–          Exhibition at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris during the  International Human Rights Day – 10 December 2011.

–          Directing photography workshop for students at UNESCO Headquarters the same day

Limited edition images

If a Finalist Image is part of an edition of prints, you agree to allow the Competition to print its own size for the exhibition. This can be in the same or separate edition, depending on your limitations and preference, but must be at the size and price determined by the Competition.

General terms and conditions

By entering the Competition you release the Organisers and their judges from and against all claims and damages arising from or in connection with your participation in the Competition. You agree to comply with these Rules of Entry.

You are responsible for informing the Organisers of any changes to the information entered on the entry form, in particular of any change of contact details at any time before the Awards Ceremony.

You agree to take part in post-competition publicity.

Copyright and permissions

By submitting images to the Competition, you confirm and warrant that:

  • you are the sole author of each Entry and that it is your original work;
  • you own the copyright and any other intellectual property rights of each image;
  • you have the permission of those pictured in the image (or, where the image shows any persons under 18, the consent of their parent/guardian) for the usage rights required in the section on licensing below and will indemnify the Organisers against any claims made by any third parties in respect of such infringement;
  • you have not licensed or disposed of any rights in the image that would conflict with uses to be made in the licensing section below; and
  • you have received any necessary permissions from the owner(s) of buildings included in submitted images for the usage rights required by the licensing section below and will indemnify the Organisers against any claims made by any third parties in respect of such infringement.


By entering the Competition, you grant the Organisers a non-exclusive, irrevocable license to reproduce, enlarge, publish or exhibit, on any media, the images for any purpose solely and exclusively to promote the Competition.


Concert à l’UNESCO

Anniversaire de la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme

Samedi 4 décembre 2010 au siège de  l’UNESCO, à Paris, la Fédération Française des Clubs UNESCO a célébré

L’anniversaire de la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme

(en décembre 1948, les 58 États Membres qui constituaient alors l’Assemblée générale ont adopté la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme à Paris au Palais de Chaillot).

Les activités de la Fédération témoignaient un fort engagement des jeunes, d’une part, pour la diversité culturelle et d’autre part, pour la biodiversité.

Le Club UNESCO Sorbonne a proposé un concert à cette occasion, interprété par deux jeunes femmes d’exception, maitre de violon et guitare :

Mlle Ana Pecic et  Mlle Danica Slavkovic


Niccolo Paganini

Sonate pour violon et guitare N°3

Fritz Kreisler

Beau romarin

Astor Piazzolla




by Nikola Tesla

Electrical Review – March 15, 1899

« To stimulate the ardor of the zealous experimenters, who believe in the revolutionary character of this discovery, it might be well to suggest one or two such simple devices for interrupting the current.  For instance, a very primitive contrivance of this kind comprises a poker – yes, an ordinary poker, connected by means of a flexible cable to one of the mains of the generator, and a bathtub filled with conducting fluid which is connected in any suitable manner, through the primary of an induction coil, to the other pole of the generator.  When the experimenter desires to take a Roentgen picture, he brings the end of the poker to white heat, and, thrusting the same into the bathtub, he will at once witness an astonishing phenomenon; the seething and boiling liquid making and breaking the current in rapid succession, and the powerful rays generated will at once convince him of the great practical value of this discovery.  I might further suggest that the poker may be conveniently heated by means of a welding machine.

Another device, entirely automatic, and probably suitable for use in suburban districts, comprises two insulated metal plates, supported in any convenient manner, in close proximity to each other.  These plates are connected through the primary of an induction coil with the terminals of a generator, and are bridged by two movable contacts joined by a flexible cable.  The two contacts are both attached to the legs of a good-sized chicken standing astride on the plates.  Heat being applied to the latter, muscular contractions are produced in the legs of the chicken, which thus makes and breaks the current through the induction coil.  Any number, of such chickens may be provided and the contacts connected in series or multiple arc, as may be desired, thus, increasing the frequency of the impulses.  In this manner fierce sparks, suitable for most purposes, may be obtained, and vacuum tubes may be operated, and these contrivances will be found a notable improvement on certain circuit-breakers of old, with which two enterprising editors undertook some years ago to revolutionize the systems of electric lighting.  The enterprising editors, are wiser now.  They are to be congratulated, and their readers, scientific societies and the profession, all ought to be congratulated, and – « all is well that ends well. » The observant experimenter will not fail to note that the fierce sparks frighten the chickens, which are thus put into more violent spasms and muscular contractions, this again increasing the fierceness of the sparks, which, in return, causes a greater fright of the chickens and increased speed of interruptions; it is, in fact, as Kipling says:

« Interdependence absolute, foreseen, ordained, decreed,
To work, ye’ll note, as any tilt an’ every rate o’speed. »

But to return, in all earnestness, to the « electrolytic interrupter » described, this is a device with which I am perfectly familiar, having carried on extensive experiments with the same two or three years ago.  It was one of many devices which I invented in my efforts to produce an economical contrivance of this kind.  The name is really not appropriate, inasmuch as any fluid, either conducting or made so in any manner, as by being rendered acid or alkaline, or by being heated, may be used.  I have even found it possible, under certain conditions, to operate with mercury.  The device is extremely simple, but the great waste of energy attendant upon its operation and certain other defects make it entirely unsuitable for any valuable, practical purpose, and as far as those instances are concerned, in which a small amount of energy is needed, much better results are obtained by a properly designed mechanical circuit-breaker.  The experimenters are very likely deceived by finding that an induction coil gives longer sparks when this device is inserted in place of the ordinary break, but this is due merely to the fact that the break is not properly designed.  Of the total energy supplied from the mains, scarcely one-fourth is obtainable of that amount, which a well constructed mechanical break furnishes in the secondary, and although I have designed many improved forms, I have found it impossible to increase materially the economy.  Two improvements, however, which I found at that time necessary to introduce, I may mention for the benefit of ‘those who are using the device.  As will be readily noted, the small terminal is surrounded by a gaseous bubble, in which the makes and breaks are formed, ‘:generally in an irregular manner, by the liquid being driven towards the terminal at some point.  The force which drives the liquid is evidently the pressure of the fluid column, and by increasing the fluid pressure in any manner the liquid is forced with greater speed towards the terminal and thus the frequency is increased.  Another necessary improvement was to make a provision for preventing the acid or alkali from being carried off into the atmosphere, which always happens more or less, even if the liquid column be of some height.  During my early experiments with the device, I became so interested in it that I neglected this precaution, and I noted that the acid had attacked all the apparatus in my laboratory.  The experimenter will conveniently carry out both of these improvements by taking a long glass tube of, say, six to eight feet in length, and arranging the interrupting device close to the bottom of the tube, with an outlet for eventually replacing the` liquid.  The high column will prevent the fumes from vitiating the atmosphere of the room, and the increased pressure will add materially to the effectiveness of the performance.  If the liquid column be,.  say, nine times as high, the force driving the fluid towards the contact is nine times as great, and this force is capable, under the same conditions, of driving the fluid three times as fast, hence the frequency is increased in that ratio and, .in fact, in a somewhat greater ratio, as the gaseous bubble, being compressed, is rendered smaller, and therefore the liquid is made to travel through a smaller distance.  The electrode, of course, should be very small :to insure the regularity of operation, and it is not necessary to use platinum.  The pressure may, however, be increased in other ways, and I have obtained some results of interest, in experiments of this kind.

As before stated, the device is very wasteful, and, while it, may be used in some instances, I consider it of little or no practical value.  It will please me to be convinced of the contrary; but I do not think that I am erring.  My chief reasons for this statement are that there are many other ways in which by far better results are obtainable with are equally simple, if not more so.  I may mention one here, based on a different principle which is incomparably more effective, more efficient and also simpler on the whole.  It comprises a fine stream of conducting fluid which is made to issue, with any desired speed, from an orifice connected with one pole of a generator, through the primary of the induction coil, against the other terminal of the generator placed at a small distance.  This device gives discharges of a remarkable suddenness, and the frequency may be brought within reasonable limits, almost to anything desired.  I have used this device for a long time in connection with ordinary coils and in a form of my own coil with results greatly superior in every respect to those obtainable with the form of device discussed. »

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Concert en Sorbonne

Lundi 22 février 2010, l’Université de Paris IV Sorbonne était le cadre d’un concert exceptionnel : les étudiants et professeurs ont assisté à une interprétation éblouissante des œuvres d’opéra classiques tels que Toréador (Carmen de Bizet) mais également des chants paraguayens tels que Alma Guarani ou Bravo Paraguay.

Le Club UNESCO Sorbonne a accueilli, avec un grand plaisir, Juan José Medina Rojas, jeune ambassadeur de l’UNESCO du Paraguay. Son intervention d’exception était saluée par de longs applaudissements sincères et enthousiastes.

Le parcours impressionnant du jeune Juan José était présenté par Danièle Seigneuric et Pascal Vasseur de la Fédération Française des Clubs UNESCO. À cette occasion, avant d’annoncer le jeune artiste, ils ont présenté les Clubs UNESCO ainsi que le travail de la Fédération aux étudiants et professeurs de la Sorbonne.

Nous remercions vivement nos chers invités et nous exprimons toute notre reconnaissance aux professeurs : Markéta Theinhardt et Cédric Pernette, grâce à qui ce concert a pu avoir lieu dans un des nouveaux amphithéâtres de Sorbonne.

Nikola Tesla : the father of sustainable development

Nikola Tesla : the father of sustainable development

Much before World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), the Brundtland Commission’s, The Centre for Our Common Future and Rio Declaration on Environment and Development – before 1900, Nikola Tesla revolutionarily saw that definitions of sustainable development required that we observe the world as a system that connects space and as a system that connects time. Tesla fought for development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Over more, in his amazing article The Problem of Increasing Human energy » published in Century Illustrated Magazine in June 1900, Tesla opens a new chapter in humankind: the Energy (

Originality and prophetic role of Tesla could also be analyzed through the concept of the article “The Power of the Future” written around 1920 :

Those who are concerned about the future had stopped long time ago to see energy only as a means of ensuring personal comfort and security; they attach to it a national, international and humanitarian significance. Not only that, the idea that our resources belong to the generations that will come is slowly born, and thoughts of engineers and inventors turn to better methods, which will not have to do with the barbaric use of energy like at the moment and which will eventually lead to the depletion of our stocks. This is why various kind of sensational announcements about new energy sources cause such a hysterical interest and readily grasp. But only one among a thousand, even among the professionals, may separate the wheat from the chaff.”

Aleksandar Protic



by Nikola Tesla

The Electrical Engineer — December 21, 1892

« Anyone who, like myself, has had the pleasure of witnessing the beautiful demonstrations with vibrating diaphragms which Prof. Bjerknes, exhibited in person at the Paris Exposition in 1880, must have admired his ability and painstaking care to such a degree, as to have an almost implicit faith in the correctness of observations made by him.  His experiments « On the Dissipation of the Electrical Energy of the Hertz Resonator, » which are described in the issue of Dec. 14, of THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, are prepared in the same ingenious and skillful manner, and the conclusions drawn from them are all the more interesting as they agree with the theories put forth by the most advanced thinkers.  There can not be the slightest doubt as to the truth of these conclusions, yet the statements which follow may serve to explain in part the results arrived at in a different manner; and with this object in view I venture to call attention to a condition with which, in investigations such as those of Prof. Bjerknes, the experimenter is confronted.

The apparatus, oscillator and resonator, being immersed in air, or other discontinuous medium, there occurs—as I have pointed out in the description of my recent experiments before the English and French scientific societies—dissipation of energy by what I think might be appropriately called electric sound waves or sound-waves of electrified air.  In Prof. Bjerknes’s experiments principally this dissipation in the resonator need be considered, though the sound-waves—if this term be permitted—which emanate from the surfaces at the oscillator may considerably affect the observations made at some distance from the latter.  Owing to this dissipation the period of vibration of an air-condenser can not be accurately determined, and I have already drawn attention to this important fact.  These waves are propagated at right angles from the charged surfaces when their charges are alternated, and dissipation occurs, even if the surfaces are covered with thick and excellent insulation.  Assuming that the « charge » imparted to a molecule or atom either by direct contact or inductively is proportionate to the electric density of the surface, the dissipation should be proportionate to the square of the density and to the number of waves per second.  The above assumption, it should be stated, does not agree with some observations from which it appears that an atom can not take but a certain maximum charge; hence, the charge imparted may be practically independent of the density of the surface, but this is immaterial for the present consideration.  This and other points will be decided when accurate quantitative determinations, which are as yet wanting, shall be trade.  At present it appears certain from experiments with, high-frequency currents, that this dissipation of energy from a wire, for instance, is not very far from being proportionate to the frequency of the alternations, and increases very rapidly when the diameter of the wire is made exceedingly small.  On the latter point the recently published results of Prof. Ayrton and H. Kilgour on « The Thermal Emissivity of Thin Wires in Air » throw a curious light.  Exceedingly thin wires are capable of dissipating a comparatively very great amount of energy by the agitation of the surrounding air, when they are connected to a source of rapidly alternating potential.  So in the experiment cited, a thin hot wire is found to be capable of emitting an extraordinarily great amount of heat, especially at elevated temperatures.  In the case of a hot wire it must of course be assumed that the increased emissivity is due to the more rapid convection and not, to any, appreciable degree, to an increased radiation.  Were the latter demonstrated, it would show that a wire, made hot by the application of heat in ordinary ways, behaves in some respects like one, the charge of which is rapidly alternated, the dissipation of energy per unit of surface kept at a certain temperature depending on the curvature of the surface.  I do not recall any record of experiments intended to demonstrate this, yet this effect, though probably very small, should certainly be, looked for.

A number of observations showing the peculiarity, of very thin wires were made in the course of my experiments.  I noted, for instance, that in the well-known Crookes instrument the mica vanes are repelled with comparatively greater force when the incandescent platinum wire is exceedingly thin.  This observation enabled me to produce the spin of such vanes mounted in a vacuum tube when the latter was placed in an alternating electrostatic field.  This however does not prove anything in regard to radiation, as in a highly exhausted vessel tile phenomena are principally due to molecular bombardment or convection.

When I first undertook to produce the incandescence of a wire enclosed in a bulb, by connecting it to only one of the terminals of a high tension transformer, I could not succeed for a long time.  On one occasion I had mounted in a bulb a thin platinum wire, but my apparatus was not adequate to produce the incandescence.  I made other bulbs, reducing the length of the wire to a small fraction; still I did not succeed.  It then occurred to me that it would be desirable to have the surface of the wire as large as possible, yet the bulk small, and I provided a bulb with an exceedingly thin wire of a bulk about equal to that of the short but much thicker wire.  On turning the current on the bulb the wire was instantly fused.  A series of subsequent experiments showed that when the diameter of the wire was exceedingly small, considerably more energy would be dissipated per unit surface at all degrees of exhaustion than was to be expected, even on the assumption that the energy given off was in proportion to the square of the electric density.  There is likewise evidence which, though not possessing the certainty of an accurate quantitative determination, is nevertheless reliable because it is the result of a great many observations, namely, that with the increase of the density the dissipation is more rapid for thin than for thick wires.

The effects noted in exhausted vessels with high-frequency currents are merely diminished in degree when the air is at ordinary pressure, but heating and dissipation occurs, as I have demonstrated, under the ordinary atmospheric conditions.  Two very thin wires attached to the terminals of a high-frequency coil are capable of giving off an appreciable amount of energy.  When the density is very great, the temperature of the wires may be perceptibly raised, and in such case probably the greater portion of the energy which is dissipated owing to the presence of a discontinuous medium is transformed into heat at the surface or in close proximity to the wires.  Such heating could not occur in a medium possessing either of the two qualities, namely, perfect incompressibility or perfect elasticity.  In fluid insulators, such as oils, though they are far from being perfectly incompressible or elastic to electric displacement, the heating is much smaller because of the continuity of the fluid.

When the electric density of the wire surfaces is small, there is no appreciable local heating, nevertheless energy is dissipated in air, by waves, which differ from ordinary sound-waves only because the air is electrified.  These waves are especially conspicuous when the discharges of a powerful battery are directed through a short and thick metal bar, the number of discharges per second being very small.  The experimenter may feel the impact of the air at distances of six feet or more from the bar, especially if be takes the precaution to sprinkle the face or hands with ether.  These waves cannot be entirely stopped by the interposition of an insulated metal plate.

Most of the striking phenomena of mechanical displacement, sound, heat and light which have been observed, imply the presence of a medium of a gaseous structure that is one consisting of independent carriers capable of free motion.

When a glass plate is placed near a condenser the charge of which is alternated, the plate emits a sound.  This sound is due to the rhythmical impact of the air against the plate.  I have also found that the ringing of a condenser, first noted by Sir William Thomson, is due to the presence of the air between or near the charged surfaces.

When a disruptive discharge coil is immersed in oil contained in a tank, it is observed that the surface of the oil is agitated.  This may be thought to be due to the displacements produced in the oil by the changing stresses, but such is not the case.  It is the air above the oil which is agitated and causes the motion of the latter; the oil itself would remain at rest.  The displacements produced in it by changing electrostatic stresses are insignificant; to such stresses it may be said to be compressible to but a very small degree.  The action of the air is shown in a curious manner for if a pointed metal bar is taken in the hand and held with the point close to the oil, a hole two inches deep is formed in the oil by the molecules of the air, which are violently projected from the point.

The preceding statements may have a general bearing upon investigations in which currents of high frequency and potential are made use of, but they also have a more direct bearing upon the experiments of Prof. Bjerknes which are here considered, namely, the « skin effect, » is increased by the action of the air.  Imagine a wire immersed in a medium, the conductivity of which would be some function of the frequency and potential difference but such, that the conductivity increases when either or bout of these elements are increased.  In such a medium, the higher the frequency and potential difference, the greater wilt be the current which will find its way through the surrounding medium, and the smaller the part which will pass through the central portion of the wire: In the case of a wire immersed in air and traversed by a high-frequency current, the facility with which the energy is dissipated may be considered as the equivalent of the conductivity; and the analogy would be quite complete, were it not that besides the air another medium is present, the total dissipation being merely modified by the presence of the air to an extent as yet not ascertained.  Nevertheless, I have sufficient evidence to draw the conclusion, that the results obtained by Prof. Bjerknes are affected by the presence of air in the following manner: 1. The dissipation of energy is more rapid when the resonator is immersed in air than it would be in a practically continuous medium, for instance, oil.  2. The dissipation owing to the presence of air renders the difference between magnetic and non-magnetic metals more striking.  The first conclusion follows directly from the preceding remarks; the second follows front the two facts that the resonator receives always the same amount of energy, independent of the nature of the metal, and that the magnetism of the metal increases the impedance of the circuit.  A resonator of magnetic metal behaves virtually as though its circuit were longer.  There is a greater potential difference set up per unit of length; although this rosy not show itself in the deflection of the electrometer owing to the lateral dissipation.  The effect of the increased impedance is strikingly illustrated in the two experiments of Prof. Bjerknes when copper is deposited upon an iron wire, and next iron upon a copper wire.  Considerable thickness of copper deposit was required in the former experiment, but very little thickness of iron in the latter, as should be expected.

Taking the above views, I believe, that in the experiments of Prof. Bjerknes which lead him to undoubtedly correct conclusions, the air is a factor fully as important, if not more so, than the resistance of the metals. »

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The Sun, New York, January 30, 1901

Capacity of Electrical Conductors is Variable, Not Constant, and Formulas Will Have to Be Rewritten — Capacity Varies With Absolute Height Above Sea Level, Relative Height From Earth and Distance From the Sun

Nikola Tesla announced yesterday another new discovery in electricity. This time it is a new law and by reason of it, Mr. Tesla asserts, a large part of technical literature will have to be rewritten. Ever since anything has been known about electricity, scientific men have taken for granted that the capacity of an electrical conductor is constant. When Tesla was experimenting in Colorado he found out that this capacity is not constant—but variable. Then he determined to find out the law governing this phenomenon. He did so, and all this he explained to The Sun yesterday. Here is what he said:

« Since many years scientific men engaged in the study of physics and electrical research have taken it for granted that certain quantities, entering continuously in their estimates and calculations, are fixed and unalterable. The exact determination of these quantities being of particular importance in electrical vibrations, which are engrossing more and more the attention of experimenters all over the world, it seems to be important to acquaint others with some of my observations, which have finally led me to the results now attracting universal attention. These observations, with which I have long been familiar, show that some of the quantities referred to are variable and that, owing to this, a large portion of the technical literature is defective. I shall endeavor to convey the knowledge of the facts I have discovered in plain language, devoid as much as possible of technicalities. »

« It is well known that an electric circuit compacts itself like a spring with a weight attached to it. Such a spring vibrates at a definite rate, which is determined by two quantities, the pliability of the spring and the mass of the weight. Similarly an electric circuit vibrates, and its vibration, too, is dependent on two quantities, designated as electrostatic capacity and inductance. The capacity of the electric circuit corresponds to the pliability of the spring and the inductance to the mass of the weight. »

« Exactly as mechanics and engineers have taken it for granted that the pliability of the spring remains the same, no matter how it be placed or used, so electricians and physicists have assumed that the electrostatic capacity of a conducting body, say of a metallic sphere, which is frequently used in experiments, remains a fixed and unalterable quantity, and many scientific results of the greatest importance are dependent on this assumption. Now, I have discovered that this capacity is not fixed and unalterable at all.  On the contrary, it is susceptible to great changes, so that under certain conditions it may amount to many times its theoretical value, or may eventually be smaller. Inasmuch as every electrical conductor, besides possessing an inductance, has also a certain amount of capacity, owing to the variations of the latter, the inductance, too, is seemingly modified by the same causes that tend to modify the capacity. These facts I discovered some time before I gave a technical description of my system of energy transmission and telegraphy without wires, which, I believe, became first known through my Belgian and British patents. »

« In this system, I then explained, that, in estimating the wave-length of the electrical vibration in the transmitting and receiving circuits, due regard must be had to the velocity with which the vibration is propagated through each of the circuits, this velocity being given by the product of the wave-length and the number of vibrations per second. The rate of vibration being, however, as before stated, dependent on the capacity and inductance in each case, I obtained discordant values. »

« Continuing the investigation of this astonishing phenomenon I observed that the capacity varied with the elevation of the conducting surface above the ground and I soon ascertained the law of this variation. The capacity increased as the conducting surface was elevated, in open space, from one-half to three-quarters of 1 percent per foot of elevation. In buildings, however, or near large structures, this increase often amounted to 50 percent per foot of elevation, and this alone will show to what extent many of the scientific experiments recorded in technical literature are erroneous. In determining the length of the coils or conductors such as I employ in my system of wireless telegraphy, for instance, the rule which I have given is, in view of the above, important to observe. »

« Far more interesting, however, for men of science is the fact I observed later, that the capacity undergoes an annual variation with a maximum in summer, and a minimum in winter. In Colorado, where I continued with improved methods of investigations begun in New York, and where I found the rate of increase slightly greater, I furthermore observed that there was a diurnal variation with a maximum during the night. Further, I found that sunlight causes a slight increase in capacity. The moon also produces an effect, but I do not attribute it to its light. »

« The importance of these observations will be better appreciated when it is stated that owing to these changes of a quantity supposed to be constant an electrical circuit does not vibrate at a uniform rate, but its rate is modified in accordance with the modifications of the capacity. Thus a circuit vibrates a little slower at an elevation than when at a lower level. An oscillating system, as used in telegraphy without wires, vibrates a little quicker when the ship gets into the harbor than when on open sea.  Such a circuit oscillates quicker in the winter than in the summer, though it be at the same temperature, and a trifle quicker at night than in daytime, particularly if the sun is shining. »

« Taking together the results of my investigations I find that this variation of the capacity and consequently of the vibration period is evidently dependent, first, on the absolute height above sea level, though in a smaller degree; second, on the relative height of the conducting surface or capacity with respect to the bodies surrounding it; third, on the distance of the earth from the sun, and fourth, on the relative change of the circuit with respect to the sun, caused by the diurnal rotation of the earth. These facts may be of particular interest to meteorologists and astronomers, inasmuch as practical methods of inquiry may result from these observations, which may be useful in their respective fields. It is probable that we shall perfect instruments for indicating the altitude of a place by means of a circuit, properly constructed and arranged, and I have thought of a number of other uses to which this principle may be put. »

« It was in the course of investigations of this kind in Colorado that I first noted certain variations in electrical systems arranged in peculiar ways. These variations I first discovered by calculating over the results I had previously noted, and it was only subsequently that I actually perceived them. It will thus be clear that some who have ventured to attribute the phenomena I have observed to ordinary atmospheric disturbances have made a hasty conclusion. »

Colorado Springs

Oct. 23, 1899

Photo from RADIOTECHNICA, Muzej Nikole TesleExperiments to further ascertain the influence of elevation upon capacity. 

The coil referred to on a previous occasion was finished with exactly 689 turns on a drum of eight feet in length and 14″ diam. The wire used was cord No. 20 as before stated so that the approximate estimate of self-induction and other particulars holds good. The coil was set up upright outside of the building at some distance to reduce any errors due to the influence of the woodwork. From the building extended a structure of dry pine to a height of about sixty feet from the ground. This framework supported, on a projecting crossbeam, a pulley (wood) with cord for pulling up a ball or other object to any desired height within the limits permitted and this beam also carried on its extreme end and close to the pulley a strong glass bottle within which was fastened a bare wire No. 10, which extended vertically downward to the top of the coil. The bottle was an ordinary Champagne bottle, from which the wine had been poured out! and the bottom broken in. It was forced neck downward into a hole bored into the beam and fastened besides with a cord. A tapering plug of hard wood was wedged into the neck and into this plug was fastened the wire. The bottle was finally filled with melted wax.

The whole arrangement is illustrated in the sketch shown in which b is the bottle with wooden plug p supported on beam B also carrying pulley p, over which passes the cord for pulling up the object, which in this case is shown as the sphere C. The spheres used were of wood and hollow and covered very smoothly with tin foil and any points of the foil were pressed in so as to be below the surface of the sphere. . . .

[Colorado Springs Notes, pp. 235, 236]

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Formation + Simulation ONU

Les membres du Club UNESCO Sorbonne ont participé à la formation :

«Promotion et utilisation des outils juridiques dans le cadre d’actions éducatives»

proposé par l’Ecole des Droits de l’Homme. Cette formation était excellemment organisé par M. Damien Compain le samedi 14 & dimanche 15 novembre 2009 à la Fédération française des Clubs UNESCO à Paris.

Présentation du programme

Celui-ci était établi sur deux journées. La première d’entre elles, le samedi 14 novembre 2009, constituait « le volet théorique » de la formation ; la seconde, le dimanche 15 novembre 2009, « le volet pratique ».

Le volet théorique était large afin que les participants puissent mener a posteriori des actions sur d’autres problèmes que ceux soulevés lors du volet pratique. Cela justifie notamment la présence de géopolitique, tout particulièrement le premier point : « Conflits et crises contemporains ». Par la suite, lors de cette première journée, les participants se sont familiarisés avec les outils juridiques (qui sont substantiellement un moyen de répondre aux crises) afin de se préparer à un type d’action éducative : l’exercice de simulation ONU, dont ils étaient eux-mêmes acteurs le second jour.

L’exercice de simulation ONU était un moyen pour les participants de découvrir

comment il est possible sous la forme d’un « jeu de rôle » d’impliquer leurs élèves dans l’analyse d’un problème faisant appel à des connaissances juridiques. Par ailleurs, cet exercice a permis a tous les participants l’exercice de prise de parole en public ainsi que l’exercice de mise en situation lors des négociations difficiles.

Programme :

I   Samedi 14 novembre 2009 : « Des Hommes au milieu des crises »

– Géopolitique

  • Conflits et crises contemporains
  • Les impacts sur la coexistence de cultures

« Le Droit comme palliatif aux crises »

– Panorama des instruments juridiques internationaux

  • La Charte des Nations Unies
  • Les instruments juridiques relatifs aux droits de l’Homme

– Instruments internationaux

– Instruments régionaux

« Savoir et transmettre le Droit »

– Utilisation des instruments juridiques internationaux pour la mise en place d’actions éducatives

  • Appréhender la forme des instruments juridiques internationaux

– Repérer les articles essentiels

– Utiliser les textes, les confronter les uns aux autres

  • Comprendre le fond

– Conditions d’élaboration, d’adhésion et de ratification par les Etats

– Portée des dispositions (du contenu)

« La protection des cultures par le Droit »

– Application pratique des connaissances juridiques à un problème concret : la sauvegarde de la diversité culturelle

  • « Qu’est-ce que la diversité culturelle ? »
  • « Quelles sont les menaces? »

– Présentation et préparation de l’exercice de microsimulation

  • Objectifs de l’exercice et fonctionnement
  • Aspects organisationnels

II   Dimanche 15 novembre 2009  :

« La sauvegarde de la diversité culturelle et le respect de la dignité humaine »

Simulation ONU

Phase I

– Discours de la Présidence et rapport spécial

– Ouverture de la liste des orateurs

– Prononcé des discours par les délégations

– Négociations

– Reprises des discours

– Nouvelles négociations

– Rédactions d’avant projets (propositions)

Phase II

– Reprise des discours (présentation des propositions)

– Nouvelles et dernières phases de négociations

– Compilation des propositions

– Présentation des projets de résolutions

– Phase de vote

– Débriefing

– Questions

Invitation : «Katô Shûichi ou Penser la diversité culturelle»


Club UNESCO Sorbonne,

partenaire officielle du Reseau Asie-IMASIE

(CNRS-UPS 2999 Institut des Mondes Asiatiques/FMSH)

pour la promotion de

Table ronde internationale :

« Katô Shûichi ou Penser la diversité culturelle »

vous invite vivement à la Maison de la culture du Japon (grande salle)

le samedi 12 décembre 2009 du 14h30 à 19h

Pour plus d’information : &

Entrée libre dans la limite des places disponibles

NB : Il est conseillé de s’inscrire par courriel à l’avance dès maintenant auprès du Réseau Asie-Imasie :

Jeanne Goffinet : [email protected]

Akiba Minami : [email protected]

Tél: 33(0)1 49 54 21 41

Katô Shûichi ou Penser la diversité culturelle

Table ronde internationale :

« Katô Shûichi ou Penser la diversité culturelle »

Maison de la culture du japon, grande salle,

samedi 12 décembre 2009, 14h30-19h00


Que dit le Japon sur le temps et l’espace ? Pourquoi les Japonais excellent-ils à raffiner tout ce qu’ils touchent ? En quoi cela a-t-il à voir avec le temps et l’espace ? Que nous ont dit à ce sujet les spécialistes d’autres cultures que le Japon ? Le Réseau Asie-Imasie (CNRS-FSMH) avec le soutien de la Japan Foundation a posé ces questions à des spécialistes japonais et non-japonais. Une table ronde internationale, intitulée « Katô Shûichi ou Penser la diversité culturelle » (voir le programme scientifique ), réunit anthropologues, historiens, sociologues, philosophes, géographes, linguistes et cinéastes.

Comment certains pays, comme le Japon, sont-ils amenés à rejeter la responsabilité de leurs crimes passés ? C’est aussi une question soulevée par Katô Shûichi, sous les auspices duquel est placée cette table ronde. Car, pour cet ancien témoin de Hiroshima, la recherche sur la culture japonaise était inséparable de la défense de la paix, et donc de la lutte contre l’amnésie. Augustin Berque, Watanabe Moriaki, Ishida Hidetaka, Pierre Caye et Julie Brock interviendront dans une première session, consacrée au temps et à l’espace dans la pensée de Katô et dans différentes cultures. Edgar Morin, Ohnuki-Tierney Emiko, Maurice Godelier, Sakurai Hitoshi et Cécile Sakai s’exprimeront, dans une seconde session, sur les implications politiques des différentes cultures temporelles et spatiales. Des images inédites évoquant Katô Shûichi seront également projetées.

Le dernier livre de Katô Shûichi, traduit par Christophe Sabouret a pour titre : « Le temps et l’espace dans la culture japonaise ». L’édition originale a été publiée par Iwanami Shoten en 2007. Dans cet ouvrage, qui commence par dénoncer « l’oubli de l’histoire » chez les Japonais, l’auteur montre combien le Japon diffère des autres cultures, à commencer par la Chine avec laquelle il est souvent confondu, en matière de temps et d’espace. Après avoir comparé entre elles les grandes conceptions du temps et de l’espace (grecque, juive, chinoise, occidentale, amérindienne, japonaise), il s’emploie, domaine après domaine (littérature, peinture, musique, arts de la scène, architecture, poterie, et même politique), à illustrer par de très nombreux exemples le fait que l’ensemble de la culture japonaise est placé sous le signe de « l’ici et du maintenant » et que sa tendance générale est de commencer précisément par les parties ou détails, d’ajouter et d’aboutir ensuite au tout.

Communication CNRS Editions : Frédéric Foucaud : [email protected] / Tél : 01 53 10 27 09

Coordination scientifique de la table ronde: Jean-François Sabouret : [email protected]

Information :

Jeanne Goffinet : [email protected]

Akiba Minami : [email protected]

Tél: 33(0)1 49 54 21 41



by Nikola Tesla

« Electrical journals are getting to be more and more interesting.  New facts are observed and new problems spring up daily which command the attention of engineers.  In the last few numbers of the English journals, principally in the Electrician there have been several new matters brought up which have attracted more than usual attention.  The address of Professor Crookes has revived the interest in his beautiful and skillfully performed experiments, the effect observed on the Ferranti mains has elicited the expressions of opinion of some of the leading English electricians, and Mr. Swinburne has brought out some interesting points in connection with condensers and dynamo excitation.

The writer’s own experiences have induced him to venture a few remarks in regard to these and other matters, hoping that they will afford some useful information or suggestion to the reader.

Among his many experiments Professor Crookes shows some performed with tubes devoid of internal electrodes, and from his remarks it must be inferred that the results obtained with these tubes are rather unusual.  If this be so, then the writer must regret that Professor Crookes, whose admirable work has been the delight of every investigator, should not have availed himself in his experiments of a properly constructed alternate current machine – namely, one capable of giving, say 10,000 to 20,000 alternations per second.  His researches on this difficult but fascinating subject would then have been even more complete.  It is true that when using such a machine in connection with an induction coil the distinctive character of the electrodes -which is desirable, if not essential, in many experiments – is lost, in most cases both the electrodes behaving alike; but on the other hand, the advantage is gained that the effects may be exalted at will.  When using a rotating switch or commutator the rate of change obtainable in the primary current is limited.  When the commutator is more rapidly revolved the primary current diminishes, and if the current be increased, the sparking, which cannot be completely overcome by the condenser, impairs considerably the virtue of the apparatus.  No such limitations exist when using an alternate current machine as any desired rate of change may be produced in the primary current.  It is thus; possible to obtain excessively high electromotive forces in the secondary circuit with a comparatively small primary current; moreover, the perfect regularity in the working of the apparatus may be relied upon.

The writer will incidentally mention that any one who attempts for the first time to construct such a machine will have a tale of woe to tell.  He will first start out, as a matter of course, by making an armature with the required number of polar projections.  He will then get the satisfaction of having produced an apparatus which is fit to accompany a thoroughly Wagnerian opera.  It may besides possess the virtue of converting mechanical energy into heat in a nearly perfect manner.  If there is a reversal in the polarity of the projections, he will get heat out of the machine; if there is no reversal, the heating will be less, but the output will be next to nothing.  He will then abandon the iron in the armature, and he will get from the Scylla to the Charybdis.  He will look for one difficulty and will find another, but, after a few trials, he may get nearly what he wanted.

Among the many experiments which may be performed with such a machine, of not the least interest are those performed with a high-tension induction coil.  The character of the discharge is completely changed.  The arc is established at much greater distances, and it is so easily affected by the slightest current of air that it often wriggles around in the most singular manner.  It usually emits the rhythmical sound peculiar to the alternate current arcs, but the curious point is that the sound may be heard with a number of alternations far above ten thousand per second, which by many is considered to be, about the limit of audition.  In many respects the coil behaves like a static machine.  Points impair considerably the sparking interval, electricity escaping from them freely, and from a wire attached to one of the terminals streams of light issue, as though it were connected to a pole of a powerful Toepler machine.  All these phenomena are, of course, mostly due to the enormous differences of potential obtained.  As a consequence of the self-induction of the coil and the high frequency, the current is minute while there is a corresponding rise of pressure.  A current impulse of some strength started in such a coil should persist to flow no less than four ten-thousandths of a second.  As this time is greater than half the period, it occurs that an opposing electromotive force begins to act while the current is still flowing.  As a consequence, the pressure rises as in a tube filled with liquid and vibrated rapidly around its axis.  The current is so small that, in the opinion and involuntary experience of the writer, the discharge of even a very large coil cannot produce seriously injurious effects, whereas, if the same coil were operated with a current of lower frequency, though the electromotive force would be much smaller, the discharge would be most certainly injurious.  This result, however, is due in part to the high frequency.  The writer’s experiences tend to show that the higher the frequency the greater the amount of electrical energy which may be passed through the body without serious discomfort; whence it seems certain that human tissues act as condensers.

One is not quite prepared for the behavior of the coil when connected to a Leyden jar.  One, of course, anticipates that since the frequency is high the capacity of the jar should be small.  He therefore takes a very small jar, about the size of a small wine glass, but he finds that even with this jar the coil is practically short-circuited.  He then reduces the capacity until he comes to about the capacity of two spheres, say, ten centimetres in diameter and two to four centimetres apart.  The discharge then assumes; the form of a serrated band exactly like a succession of sparks viewed in a rapidly revolving mirror; the serrations, of course, corresponding to the condenser discharges.  In this case one may observe a queer phenomenon.  The discharge starts at the nearest points, works gradually up, breaks somewhere near the top of the spheres, begins again at the bottom; and so on.  This goes on so fast that several serrated bands are seen at once.  One may be puzzled for a few minutes, but the explanation is simple enough.  The discharge begins at the nearest points; the air is heated and carries the arc upward until it breaks, when it is re-established at the nearest points, etc.  Since the current passes easily through a condenser of even small capacity, it will be found quite natural that connecting only one terminal to a body of the same size, no matter how well insulated, impairs considerably the striking distance of the arc.

Experiments with Geissler tubes are of special interest.  An exhausted tube, devoid of electrodes of any kind, will light up at some distance from the coil.  If a tube from a vacuum pump is near the coil the whole of the pump is brilliantly lighted.  An incandescent lamp approached to the coil lights up and gets perceptibly hot.  If a lamp have the terminals connected to one of the binding posts of the coil and the hand is approached to the bulb, a very curious and rather unpleasant discharge from the glass to the hand takes place, and the filament may become incandescent.  The discharge resembles to some extent the stream issuing from the plates of a powerful Toepler machine, but is of incomparably greater quantity.  The lamp in this case acts as a condenser, the rarefied gas being one coating, the operator’s hand the other.  By taking the globe of a lamp in the hand, and by bringing the metallic terminals near td or in contact with a conductor connected to the coil, the carbon is brought to bright incandescence and the glass is rapidly heated.  With a 100-volt 10 c.p.  lamp one may without great discomfort stand as much current as will bring the lamp to a considerable brilliancy; but it can be held in the hand only for a few minutes, as the glass is heated in an incredibly short time.  When a tube is lighted by bringing it near to the coil it may be made to go out by interposing a metal plate on the hand between the coil and tube; but if the metal plate be fastened to a glass rod or otherwise insulated, the tube may remain lighted if the plate be interposed, or may even increase in luminosity.  The effect depends on the position of the plate and tube relatively to the coil, and may be always easily foretold by assuming that conduction takes place from one terminal of the coil to the other.  According to the position of the plate, it may either divert from or direct the current to the tube.

In another line of work the writer has in frequent experiments maintained incandescent lamps of 50 or 100 volts burning at any desired candle power with both the terminals of each lamp connected to a stout copper wire of no more than a few feet in length.  These experiments seem interesting enough, but they are not more so than the queer experiment of Faraday, which has been revived and made much of by recent investigators, and in which a discharge is made to jump between two points of a bent copper wire.  An experiment may be cited here which may seem equally interesting.

If a Geissler tube, the terminals of which are joined by a copper wire, be approached to the coil, certainly no one would be prepared to see the tube light up.  Curiously enough, it does light up, and, what is more, the wire does not seem to make much difference.  Now one is apt to think in the first moment that the impedance of the wire might have something to do with the phenomenon.  But this is of course immediately rejected, as for this an enormous frequency would be required.  This result, however, seems puzzling only at first; for upon reflection it is quite clear that the wire can make but little difference.  It may be explained in more than one way, but it agrees perhaps best with observation to assume that conduction takes place from the terminals of the coil through the space.  On this assumption, if the tube with the wire be held in any position, the wire can divert little more than the current which passes through the space occupied by the wire and the metallic terminals of the tube; through the adjacent space the current passes practically undisturbed.  For this reason, if the tube be held in any position at right angles to the line joining the binding posts of the coil, the wire makes hardly any difference, but in a position more or less parallel with that line it impairs to a certain extent the brilliancy of the tube and its facility to light up.  Numerous other phenomena may be explained on the same assumption.  For instance, if the ends of the tube be provided with washers of sufficient size and held in the line joining the terminals of the coil, it will not light up, and then nearly the whole of the current, which would otherwise pass uniformly through the space between the washers, is diverted through the wire.  But if the tube be inclined sufficiently to that line, it will light up in spite of the washers.  Also, if a metal plate be fastened upon a glass rod and held at right angles to the line joining the binding posts, and nearer to one of them, a tube held more or less parallel with the line will light up instantly when one of the terminals touches the plate, and will go out when separated from the plate.  The greater the surface of the plate, up to a certain limit, the easier the tube will light up.  When a tube is placed at right angles to the straight line joining the binding posts, and then rotated, its luminosity steadily increases until it is parallel with that line.  The writer must state, however, that he does not favor the idea of a leakage or current through the space any more than as a suitable explanation, for he is convinced that all these experiments could not be performed with a static machine yielding a constant difference of potential, and that condenser action is largely concerned in these phenomena.

It is well to take certain precautions when operating a Ruhmkorff coil with very rapidly alternating currents.  The primary current should not be turned on too long, else the core may get so hot as to melt the guta-percha or paraffin, or otherwise injure the insulation, and this may occur in a surprisingly short time, considering the current’s strength.  The primary current being turned on, the fine wire terminals may be joined without great risk, the impedance being so great that it is difficult to force enough current through the fine wire so as to injure it, and in fact the coil may be on the whole much safer when the terminals of the fine wire are connected than when they are insulated; but special care should be taken when the terminals are connected to the coatings of a Leyden jar, for with anywhere near the critical capacity, which just counteracts the self-induction at the existing frequency, the coil might meet the fate of St.  Polycarpus.  If an expensive vacuum pump is lighted up by being near to the coil or touched with a wire connected to one of the terminals, the current should be left on no more than a few moments, else the glass will be cracked by the heating of the rarefied gas in one of the narrow passages – in the writer’s own experience quod erat demonstrandum.

There are a good many other points of interest which may be observed in connection with such a machine.  Experiments with the telephone, a conductor in a strong field or with a condenser or arc, seem to afford certain proof that sounds far above the usual accepted limit of hearing would be perceived.  A telephone will emit notes of twelve to thirteen thousand vibrations per second; then the inability of the core to follow such rapid alternations begins to tell.  If, however, the magnet and core be replaced by a condenser and the terminals connected to the high-tension secondary of a transformer, higher notes may still be heard.  If the current be sent around a finely laminated core and a small piece of thin sheet iron be held gently against the core, a sound may be still heard with thirteen to fourteen thousand alternations per second, provided the current is sufficiently strong.  A small coil, however, tightly packed between the poles of a powerful magnet, will emit a sound with the above number of alternations, and arcs may be audible with a still higher frequency.  The limit of audition is variously estimated.  In Sir William Thomson’s writings it is stated somewhere that ten thousand per second, or nearly so, is the limit.  Other, but less reliable, sources give it as high as twenty-four thousand per second.  The above experiments have convinced the writer that notes of an incomparably higher number of vibrations per second would be perceived provided they could be produced with sufficient power.  There is no reason why it should not be so.  The condensations and rarefactions of the air would necessarily set the diaphragm in a corresponding vibration and some sensation would be produced, whatever – within certain limits – the velocity, of transmission to their nerve centres, though it is probable that for want of exercise the ear would not be able to distinguish any such high note.  With the eye it is different; if the sense of vision is based upon some resonance effect, as many believe, no amount of increase in the intensity of the ethereal vibration could extend our range of vision on either side of the visible spectrum.

The limit of audition of an arc depends on its size.  The greater the surface by a given heating effect in the arc, the higher the limit of audition.  The highest notes are emitted by the high-tension discharges of an induction coil in which the arc is, so to speak, all surface.  If R be the resistance of an arc, and C the current, and the linear dimensions be n times increased, then the resistance is R/n , and with the same current density the current would be n2C; hence the heating effect is n3 times greater, while the surface is only n2 times as, great.  For this reason very large arcs would not emit any rhythmical sound even with a very low frequency.  It must be observed, however, that the sound emitted depends to some extent also on the composition of the carbon.  If the carbon contain highly refractory material, this, when heated, tends to maintain the` temperature’ of the arc uniform and the sound is lessened; for this reason it would seem that an alternating arc requires such carbons:

With currents of such high frequencies it is possible to obtain noiseless arcs, but the regulation of the lamp is rendered extremely difficult on account of the excessively small attractions or repulsions between conductors conveying these currents:

An interesting feature of the arc produced by these rapidly alternating currents is its persistency.  There are two causes for it, one of which is always present, the other sometimes only.  One is due to the character of the current and the other to a property of the machine.  The first cause is the more important one, and is due directly to the rapidity of the alternations.  When an arc is formed by a periodically undulating current, there, is, a corresponding undulation in the temperature of the gaseous column, and, therefore, a corresponding undulation in the resistance of the arc.  But the resistance of the arc varies enormously with the temperature of the gaseous column, being, practically infinite when the gas between the electrodes is cold.  The persistence of the arc, therefore, depends on the inability of the column to cool.  It is for this reason impossible to maintain an arc with the current alternating only a few times a second.  On the other hand, with a practically continuous current, the arc is easily maintained, the column being constantly, kept at a high temperature and low resistance.  The higher the frequency the smaller the time interval during which the arc may cool’ and increase considerably in resistance.  With a frequency of 10,000 per second or more in any arc of equal, size excessively small variations of temperature are superimposed upon a steady temperature, like ripples on the surface of a deep sea.  The heating effect is practically continuous and the arc behaves like one produced, by a continuous current, with the exception, however, that it may not be quite as easily started, and that the electrodes are equally consumed; though the writer has observed ‘some irregularities in this respect.  The second cause alluded to, which possibly may not be present, is due to the tendency of a, machine of such high frequency td maintain a practically constant current.  When the arc is lengthened, the electromotive force rises in proportion and the arc appears to be more persistent.

Such a machine is eminently adapted to maintain a constant current, but it is very unfit for a constant potential.  As a matter of fact, in certain types of such machines a nearly constant current is an almost unavoidable result.  As the number of poles or polar projections is greatly increased, the clearance becomes of great importance.  One has really to do with’ a great number of very small machines.  Then there is the impedance in the armature, enormously augmented by the high frequency.  Then, again, the magnetic leakage is facilitated.  If there are’ three or four hundred alternate poles, the leakage is so great that it is virtually the same as connecting, in a two-pole machine, the poles by a piece of iron.  This disadvantage,, it is true, may be obviated more or less by using a field throughout of the same polarity, but then one encounters difficulties, of a different nature: All these things tend to maintain a constant’ current in the armature circuit.

In this connection it is interesting to notice that even to-day engineers are astonished at the performance of a constant current machine, just as, some years ago, they used to consider it an extraordinary performance if a machine was capable of maintaining a constant, potential difference between the terminals.  Yet one result is just as easily secured as the other.  It must only be remembered that in an inductive apparatus of any kind, if constant potential is required, the inductive relation between the primary or exciting and secondary or armature circuit must be the closest possible; whereas, in an apparatus for constant current just the opposite is required.  Furthermore, the opposition to the current’s flow in the induced circuit must be as small as possible in the former and as great as possible in the latter case.  But opposition to a current’s flow may be caused in more than one way.  It may be caused by ohmic resistance of self-induction.  One may make the induced circuit of a dynamo machine or transformer of such high resistance that when operating devices of considerably smaller resistance within very wide limits a nearly constant current is maintained.  But such high resistance involves a great loss in power, hence it is not practicable.  Not so self-induction.  Self-induction does not necessarily mean loss of power.  The moral is, use self-induction instead of resistance.  There is, however, a circumstance which favors the adoption of this plan, and this is, that a very high self-induction may be obtained cheaply by surrounding a comparatively small length of wire more or less completely with iron, and, furthermore, the effect may be exalted at will by causing a rapid undulation of the current.  To sum up, the requirements for constant current are: Weak magnetic connection between the induced and inducing circuits, greatest possible self-induction with the least resistance, greatest practicable rate of change of the current.  Constant potential, on the other hand, requires: Closest magnetic connection between the circuits, steady induced current, and, if possible, no reaction.  If the latter conditions could be fully satisfied in a constant potential machine, its output would surpass many times that of a machine primarily designed to give constant current.  Unfortunately, the type of machine in which these conditions may be satisfied is of little practical value, owing to the small electromotive force obtainable and the difficulties in taking off the current.

With their keen inventor’s instinct, the now successful arc-light men have early recognized the desiderata of a constant current machine.  Their arc light machines have weak fields, large armatures, with a great length of copper wire and few commutator segments to produce great variations in the current’s strength and to bring self-induction into play.  Such machines may maintain within considerable limits of variation in the resistance of the circuit a practically constant current.  Their output is of course correspondingly diminished, and, perhaps with the object in view not to Cut down the output too much, a simple device compensating exceptional variations is employed.  The undulation of the current is almost essential to the commercial success of an arc-light system.  It introduces in the circuit a steadying element taking the place of a large ohmic resistance, without involving a great loss in power, and, what is more important, it allows the use of simple clutch lamps, which with a current of a certain number of impulses per second, best suitable for each particular lamp, will, if properly attended to, regulate even better than the finest clock-work lamps.  This discovery has been made by the writer – several years too late.

It has been asserted by competent English electricians that in a constant-current machine or transformer the regulation is effected by varying the phase of the secondary current.  That this view is erroneous may be easily proved by using, instead of lamps, devices each possessing self-induction and capacity or self-induction and resistance – that is, retarding and accelerating components – in such proportions as to not affect materially the phase of the secondary current.  Any number of such devices may be inserted or cut out, still it will be found that the regulation occurs, a constant current being maintained, while the electromotive force is varied with the number of the devices.  The change of phase of the secondary current is simply a result following from the changes in resistance, and, though secondary reaction is always of more or less importance, yet the real cause of the regulation lies in the existence of the conditions above enumerated.  It should be stated, however, that in the case of a machine the above remarks are to be restricted to the cases in which the machine is independently excited.  If the excitation be effected by commutating the armature current, then the fixed position of the brushes makes any shifting of the neutral line of the utmost importance, and it may not be thought immodest of the writer to mention that, as far as records go, he seems to have been the first who has successfully regulated machines by providing a bridge connection between a point of the external circuit and the commutator by means of a third brush.  The armature and field being properly proportioned, and the brushes placed in their determined positions, a constant current or constant potential resulted from the shifting of the diameter of commutation by the varying loads.

In connection with machines of such high frequencies, the condenser affords an especially interesting study.  It is easy to raise the electromotive force of such a machine to four or five times the value by simply connecting the condenser to the circuit, and the writer has continually used the condenser for the purposes of regulation, as suggested by Blakesley in his book on alternate currents, in which he has treated the most frequently occurring condenser problems with exquisite simplicity and clearness.  The high frequency allows the use of small capacities and renders investigation easy.  But; although in most of the experiments the result may be foretold, some phenomena observed seem at first curious.  One experiment performed three or four months ago with such a machine and a condenser may serve as an illustration.  A machine was used giving about 20,000 alternations per second.  Two bare wires about twenty feet long and two millimetres in diameter, in close proximity to each other, were connected to the terminals of the machine at the one end, and to a condenser at the other.  A small transformer without an iron core, of course, was used to bring the reading within range of a Cardew voltmeter by connecting the voltmeter to the secondary.  On the terminals of the condenser the electromotive force was about 120 volts, and from there inch by inch it gradually fell until at the terminals of the machine it was about 65 volts.  It was virtually as though the condenser were a generator, and the line and armature circuit simply a resistance connected to it.  The writer looked for a case of resonance, but he was unable to augment the effect by varying the capacity very carefully and gradually or by changing the speed of the machine.  A case of pure resonance he was unable to obtain.  When a condenser was connected to the terminals of the machine – the self-induction of the armature being first determined in the maximum and minimum position and the mean value taken – the capacity which gave the highest electromotive force corresponded most nearly to that which just counteracted the self-induction with the existing frequency.  If the capacity was increased or diminished, the electromotive force fell as expected.

With frequencies as high as the above mentioned, the condenser effects are of enormous importance.  The condenser becomes a highly efficient apparatus capable of transferring considerable energy.

The writer has thought machines of high frequencies may find use at least in cases when transmission at great distances is not contemplated.  The increase of the resistance may be reduced in the conductors and exalted in the devices when heating effects are wanted, transformers may be made of higher efficiency and greater outputs and valuable results may be secured by means of condensers.  In using machines of high frequency the writer has been able to observe condenser effects which would have otherwise escaped his notice.  He has been very much interested in the phenomenon observed on the Ferranti main which has been so much spoken of.  Opinions have been expressed by competent electricians, but up to the present all still seems: to be conjecture.  Undoubtedly in the views expressed the truth must be contained, but as the opinions differ some must be erroneous.  Upon seeing the diagram of M. Ferranti in the Electrician of Dec.  19 the writer has formed his opinion of the effect.  In the absence of all the necessary data he must content himself to express in words the process which, in his opinion, must undoubtedly occur.  The condenser brings about two effects: (1) It changes the phases of the currents in the branches; (2) it changes the strength of the currents.  As regards the change in phase, the effect of the condenser is to accelerate the current in the secondary at Deptford and to retard it in the primary at London.  The former has the effect diminishing the self-induction in the Deptford primary, and this means lower electromotive force on the dynamo.  The retardation of the primary at London, as far as merely the phase is concerned, has little or no effect since the phase of the current in the secondary in London is not arbitrarily kept.

Now, the second effect of the condenser is to increase the current in both the branches.  It is immaterial whether there is equality between the currents or not; but it is necessary to point out, in order .  to see the importance of the Deptford step-up transformer, that an increase of the current in both the branches produces opposite effects.  At Deptford it means further lowering of the electromotive force at the primary, and at London it means increase of the electromotive force.  at the secondary., Therefore, all the things co-act to bring about the phenomenon observed.  Such actions, at least, have been formed to take place under similar conditions.  When the dynamo is connected directly to the main, one can see that no such action can happen.

The writer has been particularly interested in, the suggestions and views expressed by Mr. Swinburne.  Mr. Swinburne has frequently honored him by disagreeing with his views.  Three years ago, when the writer, against the prevailing opinion of engineers, advanced’ an open circuit transformer, Mr. Swinburne was the first to condemn it by stating in the Electrician: « The (Tesla) transformer must be inefficient; it has magnetic poles revolving, and has thus an open magnetic circuit. »  Two years later Mr. Swinburne becomes the champion of the open circuit transformer, and offers to convert him.  But, tempora mutantur, et nos mutamur in illis.

The writer cannot believe in the armature reaction theory as expressed in Industries, though undoubtedly there is some truth in it.  Mr. Swinburne’s interpretation, however, is so broad that it may mean anything.

Mr. Swinburne seems to have been the first who has called attention to the heating of the condensers.  The astonishment expressed at that by the ablest electrician is a striking illustration of ‘the desirability to execute experiments on a large scale.  To the scientific investigator, who deals with the minutest quantities, who observes the faintest effects, far more credit is due .than to one who experiments with apparatus on an industrial scale; and indeed history of science has recorded examples of marvelous skill, patience and keenness of observation.  But however great the skill, and however keen the observer’s perception, it can only be of advantage to magnify an effect and thus facilitate its study.  Had Faraday carried out but one of his experiments on dynamic induction on a large scale it would have resulted in an incalculable benefit.

In ‘the opinion of the writer, the heating of the condensers is due to three distinct causes: first, leakage or conduction; second, imperfect elasticity in the dielectric, and, third, surging of the charges in the conductor.
In many experiments he has been confronted with the problem of transferring the greatest possible amount of energy across a dielectric.  For instance, he has made incandescent lamps the ends of the filaments being completely sealed in’ glass, but attached to interior condenser coatings so that all the energy required had to be transferred across the glass with a condenser surface of no more than a few centimetres square.  Such lamps would be a practical success with sufficiently high frequencies.  With alternations as high as 15,000 per second it was easy to bring the filaments to incandescence.  With lower frequencies this could also be effected, but the potential difference had, of course, to be increased.  The writer has then found that the glass gets, after a while, perforated and the vacuum is impaired.  The higher the frequency the longer the lamp can withstand.  Such a deterioration of the dielectric always takes place when the amount of energy transferred across a dielectric of definite dimensions and by a given frequency is too great.  Glass withstands best, but even glass is deteriorated.  In this case the potential difference on the plates is of course too great and losses by conduction and imperfect elasticity result.  If it is desirable to produce condensers capable to stand differences of potential, then the only dielectric which will involve no losses is a gas under pressure.  The writer has worked with air under enormous pressures, but there are a great many practical difficulties in that direction.  He thinks that in order to make the condensers of considerable practical utility, higher frequencies should be used: though such a plan has besides others the great disadvantage that the system would become very unfit for the operation of motors.

If the writer does not err Mr. Swinburne has suggested a way of exciting an alternator by means of a condenser.  For a number of years past the writer has carried on experiments with the object in view of producing a practical self-exciting alternator: He has in a ,variety of ways succeeded in producing some excitation of the magnets by means of alternating currents, which were not commutated by mechanical devices.  Nevertheless, his experiments have revealed a fact which stands as solid, as the rock of Gibraltar.  No practical excitation can be obtained with a single periodically varying and not commutated current.  The reason is that the changes in the strength of the exciting current produce corresponding changes in the field strength, with the result of inducing currents in the armature; and these currents interfere with these produced by the motion of the armature through the field, the former being a quarter phase in advance of the latter.  If the field be laminated, no excitation can be produced; if it be not laminated, some excitation is produced, but .the magnets are heated.  By combining two exciting currents – displaced by a quarter phase, excitation may be produced in both cases, and if the magnet be not laminated the heating effect is comparatively small, as a uniformity in the field strength is maintained, and, were it possible to produce a perfectly uniform field, excitation on this plan would give quite practical results.  If such results are to be secured by the use of a condenser, as suggested by Mr. Swinburne, it is necessary to combine two circuits separated by a quarter phase; that is to say, the armature coils must be wound in two sets and connected to one or two independent condensers.  The writer has done some work in that direction, but must defer the description of the devices for some future time. »

Go to source and read more here

Club UNESCO Sorbonne participe à la table ronde L’ECO-MOBILITE ET LES JEUNES


Convié par Bernard EMSELLEM,

(Directeur Général Développement durable et Communication de la SNCF)

et par le Web Pédagogique,

Club UNESCO Sorbonne a participé  à la table ronde


du 18 novembre 2009, organisée par la SNCF, en partenariat avec LeWebPédagogique.  A l’occasion de cette table ronde, une convention de partenariat pour le développement de l’éducation au développement durable a été signée par le ministère de l’Education nationale, représenté par Jean-Louis Nembrini, Directeur de la Délégation Générale de l’Enseignement Scolaire (DGESCO), et la SNCF, représentée par Bernard Emsellem.

Cette table ronde, remarquablemeent animée par  Emmanuel Davidenkoff, directeur de la rédaction de « L’Étudiant » était organisée avec la participation de :

Marie-Christine FERRANDON,

Directrice du Centre Régional de Documentation Pédagogique d’Amiens
Pôle national d’éducation au développement durable

Jean-Pierre GIRAULT,

Conseiller régional -Président de la Commission des transports -Région Île-de-France

Jean-Louis JOURDAN,

Directeur du Développement durable -SNCF

Jean-Louis NEMBRINI,

Directeur de la Délégation Générale de l’Enseignement Scolaire (DGESCO)
Ministère de l’Éducation nationale


Fondatrice et directrice du cabinet Ethicity

Les débats étaient suivis d’un cocktail.

Pour en savoir plus :

Un programme réalisé avec Le Web Pédagogique, première communauté éducative sur le web.





Le 15 octobre 2009, invité par Daniela Popescu (Présidente de la Fédération Roumaine des Clubs UNESCO) et Mme Ana Dumitrescu (Spécialiste du programmeDivision des objets culturels et du patrimoine immatériel à l’UNESCO ) le Club UNESCO Sorbonne a participé, à l’UNESCO, à la présentation du projet MÉTAMORPHOSES, en présence de plusieurs diplomates, chercheurs et artistes.


Création par de jeunes gens d’un espace muséal qui mette en lumière l’identité européenne.

L’initiative de ce projet, en avril 2009, revient au club UNESCO Alumnus , membre de la Fédération roumaine des clubs, centres et associations UNESCO, et au secteur de la Culture à l’UNESCO, section des musées et objets culturels.

Le projet a pour objectif d’élaborer un concept innovant de musée dédié à l’identité européenne. Il fait partie de l’agenda 2009 des Fédérations Européenne et Mondiale des Clubs, Centres et Associations UNESCO.
Dans ce contexte, un premier atelier international intitulé Métamorphoses a été organisé à Sinaia (Roumanie) du 19 au 26 juillet 2009, avec la participation de 16 personnes, dont 11 jeunes gens issus de sept pays européens : Roumanie, Serbie, Bulgarie, Chypre, Grèce, Italie, et République de Moldavie.
Cette liste était complétée par quatre experts et un professeur de peinture. Au même moment, un groupe d’enfants, âgés de 7 à 14 ans, de Sinaia et de Paris, a travaillé sous la supervision d’un peintre roumain, Tanase Mocanescu, afin d’exprimer à travers la peinture comment ils voient l’Europe aujourd’hui. Les enfants ont présenté leur travail aux autres participants pendant la session de clôture. Les peintures préparées par ce groupe d’enfants seront exposées à l’occasion de différents événements européens.


L’atelier était structuré en différentes sessions de présentations individuelles faites par chaque adulte participant, de brainstorming et de travail sur le concept (par trois sous-groupes).
Les objectifs poursuivis par cet atelier étaient :

– de développer des vues personnelles sur les idées et les valeurs culturelles communes à l’Europe, avec une compréhension de certains aspects de l’Europe culturelle comme antidote à l’intolérance et aux politiques hostiles de la « forteresse Europe » ;

– de renforcer le sens d’une identité européenne commune et tangible, qui s’ajoute aux identités nationales et régionales comme réponse à la diversité européenne et aux problèmes d’intégration des minorités ;

– de promouvoir la communication intercuturelle et les échanges culturels à travers l’accès, l’analyse et l’usage d’informations sur les différentes cultures européennes.

De nombreuses questions ont été adressées par les participants à l’atelier au sujet des thèmes donnés, notamment : qu’est-ce qui définit exactement l’identité culturelle européenne ? Quelles sont les origines historiques de l’Europe ? Quels sont les principaux symboles avec lesquels se contruit aujourd’hui l’identité culturelle européenne ? Qu’est-ce qui unit les cultures européennes ? Qu’est-ce qui les attache ensemble ? Quels sont les valeurs et principes communs à l’Europe culturelle en plus des identités culturelles nationales et régionales ? Quel est le rôle de l’héritage culturel dans la définition de l’identité culturelle européenne ? Où commence et où se termine l’Europe en terme d’identité européenne ?

La seconde étape du projet Métamorphoses se tiendra en Roumanie pendant l’été 2010 avec l’objectif d’approfondir les trois sujets proposés lors du premier atelier. Les résultats du premier atelier sont trois propositions pour un espace muséal qui mette en lumière l’identité européenne, propositions qui sont brièvement présentées ci-dessous.



Deux mots différents juxtaposés créent le titre du projet, en l’occurrence « euro » et « morpho ». La surface exprime parfaitement les changements continuels auxquels l’identité culturelle européenne aux multiples facettes a été continuellement soumise, le processus de (re)formation et de (re)modelage de cette identité à travers l’espace et le temps.

EUROMORPHO s’appuie sur un unique espace développé à la fois verticalement et horizontalement, exprimant ainsi la communication interculturelle et la superposition de strates historiques et culturelles au niveau européen. Cet espace flotte au travers d’aires à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur, situées au-dessus et au-dessous du sol et réunit des éléments et des effets naturels et artificiels. Il offre plusieurs entrées et sorties, ouvertes jour et nuit ; un club ou un lounge bar peut prendre place au-dessus. En observant et en agissant, les visiteurs d’EUROMORPHO sont directement impliqués dans une expérience culturelle sans fin aux multiples facettes.

Les caractéristiques et valeurs de l’identité européenne consistent en :

-stratification (une superposition verticale de niveaux historiques et culturels) ;

-communication interculturelle ;

-diversité culturelle et multiculturalisme ;

-politique culturelle commune et avenir ;

-mobilité ;

-partenariats créatifs, coopération et innovation ;

-communauté économique ;

-interactivité et dialogue ;

-respect mutuel et compréhension.



Le flux de l’histoire européenne à travers l’espace et le temps sera exprimé à travers un tunnel de verre courant sur une large surface en plein air. Une reproduction d’un ancien amphithéâtre grec constituera le sol du corps principal de bâtiment et illuminera naturellement une partie du tunnel.

EUROFLUX se structurera en accord avec un axe narratif historique et un axe synthétique/symbolique qui exprimera le processus de construction et de changement de l’identité européenne.

Pendant qu’il passe à travers le tunnel, le visiteur éprouvera le flot de l’histoire européenne à la fois émotionnellement et intellectuellement à travers une série de moments historiques représentatifs de la formation et du développement européens. Des images, des vidéos, des sons, des écrans tactiles, etc. disponibles dans le tunnel illustreront à la fois l’histoire de l’Europe et ses valeurs identitaires. Au même moment, les visiteurs se verront offrir des spectacles au niveau du sol, c’est-à-dire dans l’amphithéâtre, et se verront proposer d’être impliqués activement dans les activités proposées pendant le stage.



Ce projet concerne une installation prototype à la fois modifiable et modulable, exprimant les modifications de l’Europe à travers l’espace et le temps. Cette installation devrait permettre aux visiteurs d’observer et d’agir simultanément, en même temps qu’ils pénètrent dans un tunnel ou qu’ils se promènent autour ; les visiteurs de l’EUROPEION seront impliqués dans cet acte d’observation. En déplaçant ou en ajoutant des objets à l’intérieur du tunnel concerné, les visiteurs agiront directement.

Le résultat de ce prototype représentera une inspiration pour les autres pays européens. Chaque reproduction ressemblera à ce prototype, même s’il sera en même temps unique et montrera certaines caractéristiques individuelles selon les pays dans lesquels il sera produit. L’EUROPEION consistera en deux parties principales : un tunnel distordu, fait de bois, de verre et d’une série de cadres de bois coupant transversalement le tunnel.

Chaque cadre contient une image imprimée, typique de chacun des vint-sept pays membres de l’Union européenne, aussi bien que de quelques pays européens voisins. De la musique envahira le tunnel, fournissant aux visiteurs simultanément une large palette d’émotions, pendant qu’ils traversent les cadres.

Développement durable + Invitation

La Décennie des Nations Unies pour l’éducation au service du développement durable (DEDD, 2005-2014), dont l’UNESCO est l’organisation chef de file, porteuse des valeurs et des pratiques liées au développement durable à toutes les formes d’éducation et d’apprentissage, tâche à relever les défis sociaux, économiques et environnementaux du XXIe siècle.

Le Club UNESCO Sorbonne s’inscrit dans ce cadre plaidant en faveur d’une citoyenneté responsable et combattant les effets néfastes des habitudes de consommation non-viables sur la société et les ressources naturelles.

Trois actions essentielles de Club UNESCO Sorbonne se sont imposées :

1) Apprendre à surmonter les problèmes sociaux et environnementaux du monde actuel et à adopter des modes de vie viables afin de lutter pour le développement durable

2) Encourager l’adoption d’une attitude nouvelle à l’égard de la protection des ressources naturelles de la planète et traiter la question des ressources naturelles (eau, énergie, agriculture, biodiversité) comme des éléments importants du projet du développement durable

3) Lutter pour une consommation des biens et services sans nuire à l’environnement ni à la société

Invitation :

Par conséquent, le Club UNESCO Sorbonne vous convie au débat sur le développement durable accompagné d’une installation artistique :

Grande baignade publique de Mon corps où es-tu ?

Entrée libre.

Maison des sciences de l’homme, le 15 Décembre de 15h à 21h,
54 boulevard Raspail, Paris 15e.

Créons un flot d’emballages de médicaments et de compléments
alimentaires déjà consommés…
Puis créons un bassin en filet de pêche et…
immergeons-nous jusqu’au cou dans la discussion…

Premiers lieux de collectage :

1. Université de Paris-Sorbonne

2. Centre d’animation « Les Amandiers »,  110 rue des Amandiers, Paris 20e

3. Centre social des Amendiers, La 20ème Chaise,  38 rue des Amendiers,  Paris 20e

4. Espace jeunes Saint Blaise,  1 rue Pauline Kergomard Paris 20e

Confluence des collectages :

Une chambre vide se remplit, 32 rue Sorbier, Paris, 20e
chez Marion Baruch, (Métro Gambetta ou Ménilmontant)
Name Diffusion, une forme de rencontre,
tel. 01 43 58 85 66

processus en marche, halte sur le chemin…
32 rue Sorbier, Paris 20e, métro Gambetta
chez Marion Baruch

Ce projet, dans lequel Club UNESCO-Sorbonne participe, est  soutenu par :

– Le Département de l’art dans la ville,  Mairie de Paris.

– La Fondation – Maison des sciences de l’homme, 54 bd Raspail Paris 6e

– MAGUYSAMA TECHNOLOGIES – Energies renouvelables

– Synesthésie






« Nouveau » logo de la Sorbonne


Un retour aux sources a été entrepris par Le Service de communication du Rectorat de l’Académie de Paris mettant en place une nouvelle identité visuelle  pour la Sorbonne. Cette initiative provienne d’une volonté de renforcer un sentiment d’identité réel à l’instar des pratiques des plus grands universités européennes.

Le logo en question est le premier sceau de l’université de Paris . Ce sceau de longue date  a marqué la création de l’université de Paris. La possession d’un sceau était au Moyen âge, le propre des personnes physiques ou morales.

L’université de Paris, établie entre 1205 et 1210, n’a constitué son sceau qu’en 1246. Depuis cette date, elle est  devenue une institution entièrement autonome « UNIVERSITATIS MAGISTRORUM ET SCOLARIUM PARISIENSIUM» et une corporation de maîtres et d’étudiants libres de se consacrer à l’étude selon les règles qu’ils se fixaient à eux-mêmes.

L’université de Paris et la Sorbonne ont eu des destins parallèles qui se sont croisés très souvent au cours de l’Histoire et ont fini par s’unir en 1821 lorsque l’université de Paris a définitivement pris siège en Sorbonne. Ce sceau symbolise l’ancienneté, la rigueur, la sagesse, le prestige de l’université de Paris et par extension de la Sorbonne. L’original du sceau est actuellement aux archives nationales de Paris.

Le Grand amphithéâtre

Le Grand amphithéâtre d’université Paris – Sorbonne est un auditoire unique :
conçu pour des evenements solennels, non pas pour l’enseignement, est avec ses 1.128 places l’une des plus imposante salles de Paris.
Grâce à sa construction métallique cachée, il réussit à éviter les piliers gênant la vue.

La décoration de cet amphithéatre exigeait  un soin particulier : en 1886, Nénot et Gréard proposent aux Beaux-Arts de confier la réalisation d’une grande toile peinte à Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, dont les couleurs claires concorderont avec l’ensemble du décor ; d’abord peu enthousiaste, le peintre réalise finalement l’un de ses chefs-d’oeuvre avec le Bois sacré (esquisse au Salon de 1887, inauguré avec l’amphithéâtre en 1889).

Autour, nous retrouvons une multitude de personnages, allégories des disciplines enseignées, décorant la toile de façon vivifiante, échappant à la monotonie que redoutait Puvis de Chavannes. Au Bois sacré placé au-dessus des sièges du corps académique siègent six personnages, scientifiques et hommes de lettres :
Robert de Sorbon et Richelieu, Descartes et Rollin, Pascal et Lavoisier.

Les abords du Grand amphithéâtre ont une solennité hors du commun. Avec ses deux volées latérales, le grand escalier obéit à l’idée d’un palais académique.Enfin, une remarquable « République assise » méditative nous est offerte par Delhomme.

Cet endroit de prestige, au centre historique de Paris, sert également pour l’organisation de colloques, de conférences ou de spectacles.
Capacité d’accueill : 1238 personnes
Superficie : 2630 m²

Master CIMER

Université Paris IV Sorbonne

Master Professionnel CIMER

(Communication interculturelle et muséologie au sein de l’Europe en reconstruction)

Responsable du Parcours :  Professeur Francis CONTE

« Dans le cadre d’une Europe qui se reconstruit à grands pas, les relations entre les deux pôles historiques de notre continent – l’Est et l’Ouest – ont acquis une importance de plus en plus marquée, et notre pays doit y jouer un rôle significatif. C’est pourquoi le parcours professionnalisant CIMER est proposé à l’initiative de l’UFR d’Etudes slaves de l’Université Paris-Sorbonne, avec le concours d’enseignants slavistes, germanistes, historiens, historiens de l’art, mais aussi d’administrateurs et de conservateurs de musées. Il dispense ainsi un enseignement qui est assuré à la fois par des universitaires et par des professionnels qui exercent dans les milieux spécialisés.
L’attention est centrée sur les questions de méthodologie liées à la connaissance et à la gestion des relations entre les cultures, les patrimoines matériels et immatériels, l’informatique, mais encore les stages (voir à cette rubrique).
Dans chaque spécialité, une deuxième langue vivante est maintenue, pour que l’étudiant puisse approfondir ses connaissances – qu’il s’initie à une autre langue d’Europe centrale et orientale ou qu’il complète sa formation en allemand ou en anglais.
Les séminaires et conférences ont lieu soit à l’Université soit dans les institutions culturelles elles-mêmes.

Profil des étudiants :

Le « CIMER » s’adresse à des étudiants slavistes, germanistes, historiens ou historiens de l’art, qui connaissent bien une langue de la zone « Europe centrale et orientale » (allemand ou langue slave, en particulier le russe), ou bien souhaitent acquérir rapidement cette connaissance, afin de travailler au mieux dans les relations interculturelles entre les pays d’Europe centrale et orientale et l’Europe occidentale. Pour cela, ils doivent acquérir ou renforcer un savoir qui concerne les patrimoines (en perspective historique et dans le monde actuel), les politiques culturelles, les phénomènes de médiation, les questions de muséologie, les problèmes d’administration et de gestion.
Ces étudiants doivent être déterminés à s’en donner les moyens grâce à une connaissance approfondie de 2 langues et des aires culturelles concernées ; un réel savoir-faire au plan de la documentation et de la rédaction ; la volonté de perfectionner leur connaissance concrète des moyens relevant des multi-médias ; une participation active, tant aux séminaires théoriques et pratiques qu’aux stages de terrain, en France ou/et à l’étranger.
Les différents enseignements trouvent ainsi une application directe dans la réalisation d’un projet personnel et dans un stage, souhaitable en M1 et obligatoire en M2. Chaque promotion favorise des échanges fructueux au sein d’un Forum, qui va permettre aux étudiants et aux « anciens » d’interagir.

Débouchés et exemples d’entreprises embauchant les diplômés :

Les secteurs professionnels sont significatifs à l’heure actuelle, en raison de l’entrée récente de plusieurs pays d’Europe centrale et balkanique dans l’Union européenne, mais aussi du vif intérêt que lui portent les pays de l’Europe orientale (Russie, Biélorussie, Ukraine).

Sont concernés :
• les services culturels européens, en particulier ceux liés aux échanges et aux patrimoines ;
• les instances culturelles auprès des ambassades de France dans les pays d’Europe centrale, orientale et balkanique ;
• les entreprises concernées par les questions de médiation, ingénierie et économie culturelles ;
• les sociétés de conseil en gestion ;
• la valorisation des patrimoines territoriaux, au plan régional ou municipal ;
• les institutions à vocation culturelle des collectivités locales et territoriales : ainsi l’organisation et la gestion des inventaires et des collections ;
• les médias (radio, télévision, cinéma documentaire, presse écrite, sites Internet, création de CD et DVD) ;
• les maisons d’édition, librairies et médiathèques ;
• les Fondations.

En raison de son insistance sur l’histoire culturelle comparée et sur les langues étrangères de « l’autre Europe », ce Master donne une base solide pour préparer, par exemple, l’Ecole nationale supérieure de bibliothécaires ou les concours de Conservateur du Patrimoine ou de la Fonction publique territoriale. »

Lettre de félicitation

L’Ambassadeur de la République de Bulgarie en France, Madame Irina BOKOVA, a été nommée Directeur Général de l’UNESCO par le Conseil exécutif de l’Organisation, le 22 septembre 2009. Pour la première fois depuis sa création au lendemain de la seconde guerre mondial, l’UNESCO va être dirigée par une femme.

A cette occasion, le Club UNESCO Sorbonne souhaite féliciter Mme Irina Gueorguieva BOKOVA pour sa nomination :

Madame l’Ambassadeur,

Le choix du Conseil Exécutif de vous nommer Directeur Général de l’UNESCO est pour nous un très grand motif de satisfaction. Je souhaite vous adresser nos plus chaleureuses félicitations pour votre succès et vous exprimer d’ores et déjà tous nos vœux de pleine réussite dans la haute mission que l’UNESCO vient de vous confier. Cela confirme de manière éclatante la confiance que la famille UNESCO vous accorde.

Qui plus est, une présence féminine manquait réellement à la tête de l’Organisation qui par excellence prône l’égalité. En outre, l’un des axes principaux de notre Club étant la communication interculturelle entre l’Europe Occidentale et l’Europe Orientale, nous nous réjouissons d’autant plus du fait que vous incarnez symboliquement ce rapprochement.

Notre jeune Club, considérant les représentants de l’UNESCO comme un modèle à suivre, vous assure que nous mettrons tout en œuvre pour vous suivre dans votre volonté de réformer l’institution. Vous trouverez en nous des soutiens zélés dans la diffusion de nos idéaux communs.

En vous renouvelant nos sincères félicitations, j’ai l’honneur, Madame l’Ambassadeur, de présenter à Votre Excellence, l’expression de ma très haute considération.

Aleksandar PROTIC

Responsable du Club UNESCO – Sorbonne

L’UNESCO à l’écoute de la jeunesse

6e Forum des jeunes, à Paris, du 1er au 3 octobre 2009 Paris, 28 septembre

© Pierre Metivier

A la veille de l’ouverture de la 35e Conférence générale de l’UNESCO, 143 jeunes, issus de 96 pays, et près d’une cinquantaine d’observateurs, représentant 34 organisations, sont attendus à Paris, pour participer au 6e Forum des jeunes de l’UNESCO, qui se tiendra, du 1er au 3 octobre prochain, au siège de l’UNESCO, sur le thème « Investir pour sortir de la crise : vers un partenariat entre l’UNESCO et les Organisations de jeunesse ».

Sélectionnés par leur pays d’origine pour leur implication dans des activités liées à la jeunesse, les 143 jeunes délégués, âgés de 18 à 24 ans, débattront des possibilités, pour les États, d’investir dans le développement de la jeunesse pour sortir de la crise, thème qui sera également au centre des débats de la 35e Conférence générale de l’UNESCO.

Ouvert par Pierre Sané, Sous-Directeur général de l’UNESCO pour les sciences sociales et humaines, ce 6e Forum des jeunes sera clôturé par l’actuel Président du Conseil exécutif de l’Organisation, Olabiyi Babalola Joseph Yaï, et le Directeur-Général de l’UNESCO, Koïchiro Matsuura.

Quarante-huit observateurs, représentant 34 organisations de jeunesse, des ONG, ainsi que des agences des Nations Unies, ont d’ores et déjà prévu d’assister à cette rencontre qui sera rythmée par des sessions plénières et parallèles. Une première session plénière sera consacrée au thème principal du Forum et sera suivie d’une session parallèle sur les priorités d’action de l’UNESCO. Une seconde session plénière mettra l’accent sur les modalités de renforcement de la participation des jeunes au Forum de l’UNESCO. La dernière journée sera consacrée à l’adoption d’un rapport qui sera présenté par deux jeunes délégués aux 193 États membres de l’UNESCO, durant les travaux de la 35e Conférence générale de l’Organisation, qui se tiendra du 6 au 23 octobre prochain. Parmi les nouveautés introduites par cette 6e édition : la mise en place, en amont du Forum, de deux dialogues en ligne ayant permis à un très grand nombre de jeunes de contribuer à la préparation des débats.

Cinq jeunes journalistes, représentant, chacun, une région du monde, seront également chargés de couvrir la rencontre. Initié en 1999 par l’UNESCO, le Forum des jeunes de l’UNESCO, qui marquera donc ses 10 ans cette année, réunit tous les deux ans des jeunes du monde entier pour leur permettre de partager expériences et préoccupations communes et de faire entendre leur voix et leurs idées, en soumettant directement des recommandations aux 193 États membres de l’Organisation, à l’occasion de la Conférence générale dont il fait partie intégrante.

Auteur(s):UNESCOPRESSE Source:Avis aux médias de l’UNESCO N°2009-53 29-09-2009

Communiqué : Journée de la Paix

Paris, le samedi 19 septembre 2009


21 septembre :  Journée internationale de la Paix


La Fédération Française des Clubs UNESCO (FFCU), à l’occasion de la Journée internationale de la paix rappelle son adhésion à la mission essentielle de l’UNESCO : faciliter et développer la coopération intellectuelle et morale des peuples et des Etats, au service de la culture de paix.

La FFCU considère qu’il est plus que jamais indispensable de faire avancer le respect effectif des Droits de l’Homme partout et pour tous, de lutter contre la pauvreté, les inégalités et les injustices notamment en développant l’accès à une éducation de qualité.

La FFCU et les Clubs UNESCO fondent leur raison d’être sur la référence éthique aux valeurs promues par l’UNESCO de tolérance et de dialogue.

Par leurs actions éducatives, ils oeuvrent concrètement, au sein des établissements scolaires et de la société civile pour faire en sorte que ce monde d’interdépendance soit aussi un monde de dignité,d’équité et de solidarité.


173, rue de Charenton 75012 Paris

Contact presse : Pascal Vasseur    Tél : 01 42 58 92 91

FFCU: N° SIRET : 775666 456 00063 – N° APE : 913 E

L’art populaire roumain – centres de poterie



La technique du modelage ainsi que l’art de la décoration de la céramique existent depuis sept millénaires dans l’espace roumain. même les premières cultures néolithiques existant sur le territoire de la Roumanie montrent une réalisation esthétique et artistique particulière.

La céramique roumaine est l’une de plus expressive de l’Europe, et dans le contexte national, la céramique d’Olténie est l’une des plus spectaculaires et parmi les plus hétéroclites du pays.

La synthèse de cette poterie implique beaucoup de nuances qui concernent premièrement, la grande diversité, l’abondance et la richesse de formes, des couleurs, la décoration, quelquefois simple et harmonieuse et parfois assez ample. Les représentations sur la céramique sont liées à des régions spécifiques. Cette poterie est également liée à des considérations socioculturelles et historiques qu’elle implique.

L’analyse de la céramique d’Olténie de point de vue  diachronique et synthétique révèle aussi bien les permanences que les influences esthétiques, les déterminantes et les consistances symboliques et rituels, les techniques et les matériaux utilisés, c’est-à-dire toutes les hypostases d’un processus culturel complexe.

Il y a, en Olténie quelques centres de poterie,   comme Horezu, Oboga, Vladesti, Sisesti, Glogova , Arcani ou Stefanesti ou nous pouvons découvrir les maîtres comme Victor Vicsoreanu, Stelien Ogrezeanu,  ( à Horezu) , Marin Diaconeasan Grigore Ciungulescu, Marin Trusca (à Oboga),Dumitru Schiopu ( à Vladesti). Certains de ces centres sont consacrés aux parcours artistiques de ces maîtres. Les nouvelles interprétations et les nouveaux modèles enrichissent et mettent en évidence d’une part l’aspect contemporain de ces centres et d’autre part  l’originalité de leur tradition.

Journée de la diversité culturelle : Exposition

Dans le cadre de La Journée de la diversité culturelle, le Club UNESCO-SORBONNE vous propose cette exposition qui porte sur l’art populaire de Roumanie.

Ce thème s’est imposé spontanément comme fruit d’une rencontre du club avec la muséologie et l’ethnologie Roumaine. En effet, l’art populaire roumain, et notamment sa poterie a une expression tout a fait importante étant donné son originalité rare et évidemment, sa beauté universelle.

Qui plus est, chaque objet exposé fait partie d’un contexte très vaste dans la tradition populaire roumaine ayant sa signification symbolique et plus profonde. Nous remercions par la présente le Musée de l’Olténie qui nous a autorisé l’exposition des œuvres de leur collection.


TESLA Memory Project




The  objective of the TESLA Memory Project is to increase awareness of :

–      life and work of Nikola Tesla

–      global importance of science

–      world memory patrimony

Tesla Memory Project was initiated by Aleksandar Protic on 2008 and officialy included as part of UNESCO Club Sorbonne program on 2009.

Nikola Tesla, one of the world’s greatest scientists, is often considered as “The Man who invented the 20th century, now shaping the 21st century”. His impact on the modern world is enormous, products of his genius can be found in everyday life. Nikola Tesla exemplifies a unifying force and inspiration for all nations in the name of peace and science. He was an authentic visionary far ahead of his contemporaries in the field of scientific development.

Nikola Tesla – Biography :






Nikola Tesla as UNESCO Memory of the world heritage




UNESCO website :

 » Nikola Tesla’s Archive consists of a unique collection of manuscripts, photographs, scientific and patent documentation which is indispensable in studying the history of electrification of the whole Globe.  Nikola Tesla, (1856 – 1943) Serbian-born, American inventor and scientist, a pioneer in electrification, significantly influenced the technological development of our civilization by his polyphase system inventions. This system is the cornerstone of modern electro-energetic system of production, long distance transmission and usage of electrical currents, electricity and communication.

Since the beginning of its exploitation towards the end of last century up to now, the polyphase system, together with the asynchronous motor, has been perfected and improved to a remarkable and hitherto unconceivable dimensions.

He is credited as being a very imaginative scientist whose ideas were paths to many important discoveries without which our civilization would lack many of its technological comforts (radio, radar, television, motors of all kinds, high frequency fields, coils, computers). Some of his ideas are still to be realized.

Way ahead of his time, he was one of the first to become aware of the emerging energy problem (1900) as a conclusion of his famous experiments in Colorado Springs (1899-1900).

In his honor, the magnetic induction unit (Tesla) of the SI system is named after him.
Simply speaking, the collection documents the most important era of the history of development of the modern world, which, thanks to the Tesla system, made easy energy production and distribution possible. « 




Journée de la diversité culturelle Paris, 19 mai

Célébration de la Journée mondiale de la diversité culturelle pour le dialogue et le développement (21 mai)

 » Deux calligraphes de renom*, de cultures différentes, entrecroisent leurs écritures pour célébrer à l’UNESCO la Journée mondiale de la diversité culturelle pour le dialogue et le développement (21 mai). Parmi beaucoup d’autres*, Maître Fan Zeng (Chine) et Hassan Makaremi (Iran) illustrent de manière poétique l’apprentissage du « mieux se connaître, mieux vivre ensemble » .

La célébration de cette Journée est l’occasion de « réaffirmer le mandat de l’UNESCO qui est de préserver l’indépendance, l’intégralité et la féconde diversité des cultures de ses Etats membres » et de « promouvoir l’idéal démocratique de dignité, d’égalité et de respect de la personne humaine par l’éducation, les sciences, la culture et communication », déclare le Directeur général de l’UNESCO, Koïchiro Matsuura, dans son message à l’occasion de la Journée.
Un des grands enjeux du XXIème siècle est de construire la diversité à partir des différences, tout en cultivant la complexité, mais surtout l’unicité, du genre humain. Cette Journée offre donc l’opportunité d’approfondir nos réflexions sur les valeurs de la diversité culturelle, « patrimoine commun de l’humanité » et « source d’échanges, d’innovation et de créativité ». Elle « doit être reconnue et affirmée au bénéfice des générations présentes et des générations futures », ainsi que le proclame l’article 1 de la Déclaration universelle de l’UNESCO sur la diversité culturelle, adoptée à l’unanimité le 2 novembre 2001.
Pour célébrer cette Journée, chacun est invité à participer au Festival international de la diversité culturelle (11 au 22 mai), organisé par l’UNESCO à Paris mais également un peu partout dans le monde. »

Exposition Moscou-Splendeurs des Romanov


Le Grimaldi Forum de Monaco organisera du 11 juillet au 13 septembre 2009 une importante exposition

consacrée à la Grande Russie des Romanov : « Exposition Moscou-Splendeurs des Romanov » sous le

commissariat de Brigitte de Montclos, conservateur en chef du Patrimoine. Elle avait déjà organisé la grande

exposition 2004 du Grimaldi Forum « Impérial Saint-Pétersbourg, de Pierre le Grand à Catherine II »

visitée par 63 000 personnes.

Les membres du club Unesco-Sorbonne ont eu l’honneur de rencontrer Madame de Montclos le 28 avril 2009 pour une conférence -débat

concernant le projet en question. Nous avons appris en quasi-exclusivité le parcours, les pièces majeures ainsi que la philosophie de cette

belle exposition. Pour obtenir davantage d’informations sur l’exposition nous vous indiquons ce lien et vous invitons vivement à la visiter :

Nous remercions par la présente M le Professeur Francis Conte, qui nous a permis de rencontrer Mme de Montclos.

Partenaires de l’UNESCO


« Les « Associations, Centres et Clubs UNESCO » sont des groupements de personnes de tous les âges, de tous les horizons socioprofessionnels qui cherchent ensemble à diffuser les idéaux de l’UNESCO et à contribuer à la réalisation de ses objectifs.

Leur référence, de nature éthique, à l’Acte constitutif de l’UNESCO les engage vis-à-vis de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme. C’est pourquoi, les clubs UNESCO se donnent une mission éducative en faveur de la paix et de la justice.

Le premier club UNESCO est né au Japon, quelques mois à peine après la naissance de l’UNESCO, le 19 juillet 1947, dans la ville de Sendaï, suivi d’un autre à Kyoto. Ils sont aujourd’hui présents dans une centaine de pays.

En France, les premiers clubs UNESCO sont apparus dès le début des années cinquante, sur l’initiative de M. Louis François, ancien résistant et inspecteur général de l’éducation nationale. La Fédération française des clubs UNESCO dépose ses statuts en 1956 et, la même année, reçoit la reconnaissance officielle du ministère de l’éducation nationale, de la jeunesse et des sports. »


« Depuis la création du premier Club au Japon en 1947, les Associations, Centres et Clubs UNESCO sont de précieux partenaires pour l’UNESCO.

Constitués de personnes de tous âges, de tous horizons socio-professionnels et de toutes origines, ils partagent un engagement envers les idéaux de l’UNESCO et travaillent bénévolement à leur mise en oeuvre sur le terrain. Ils sont ainsi bien placés pour être les porte voix de la société civile auprès des décideurs.

Un demi siècle d’existence du mouvement des clubs UNESCO représente un vaste canevas d’événements ayant eu lieu dans toutes les régions et touchant tous les domaines de compétence de l’UNESCO.

En 2006, le mouvement compte quelque 3700 centres, associations et clubs UNESCO repartis dans plus de 100 pays à travers le monde.

Au niveau international, la Fédération mondiale des associations, centres et clubs UNESCO (FMACU) est chargée d’informer, de coordonner et de mobiliser ses membres.

A la lumière du rôle grandissant de la société civile dans les décisions touchant la vie publique, le mouvement des clubs peut jouer un rôle essentiel dans l’éducation des citoyens, et contribuer au dialogue entre les cultures et les générations pour un développement durable. »

UNESCO : Présentation


UNESCO en bref : Ce qu’elle est, ce qu’elle fait

« L’Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’éducation, la science et la culture (UNESCO) est née le 16 novembre 1945. Pour cette agence spécialisée des Nations Unies, le plus important n’est pas de construire des salles de classe dans des pays dévastés ou de restaurer des sites du Patrimoine mondial. L’objectif que s’est fixé l’Organisation est vaste et ambitieux : construire la paix dans l’esprit des hommes à travers l’éducation, la science, la culture et la communication.

La paix n’est pas simplement l’absence de conflits. La paix signifie : des budgets consacrés à construire et non pas à tuer et détruire, des infrastructures et des services qui fonctionnent et s’améliorent, des populations qui font des projets d’avenir, des esprits libérés des traumatismes de la violence et des idées de vengeance, et réceptifs aux idées de solidarité.

La paix est une démarche volontaire qui repose sur le respect de la différence et le dialogue. L’UNESCO veut être l’artisan de ce dialogue et promeut la collaboration entre les peuples, accompagnant les États* sur le chemin du développement durable qui, au-delà du seul progrès matériel, doit répondre à toutes les aspirations humaines sans entamer le patrimoine des générations futures, et sur celui de l’établissement d’une culture de paix fondée sur les droits de l’homme et la démocratie. Ce mandat est sa raison d’être et son travail quotidien.

Cette vision globale des problèmes et des enjeux de la planète trouve sa représentation métaphorique dans les éléments de son identité visuelle : les deux traits se croisant sous le logo de l’UNESCO créent un delta allongé, symbole de la diversité, de la fertilité et de la canalisation des forces vives, qui résume bien la place de l’Organisation dans le monde d’aujourd’hui.

À travers ses stratégies et ses activités, l’UNESCO œuvre en faveur des Objectifs de développement des Nations Unies pour le Millénaire … »